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dc.contributor.authorEsper, Jan
dc.contributor.authorGeorge, Scott St.
dc.contributor.authorAnchukaitis, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorD'Arrigo, Rosanne
dc.contributor.authorLjungqvist, Fredrik
dc.contributor.authorLuterbacher, Jürg
dc.contributor.authorSchneider, Lea
dc.contributor.authorStoffel, Markus
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Rob
dc.contributor.authorBüntgen, Ulf
dc.identifier.citationEsper , J , George , S S , Anchukaitis , K , D'Arrigo , R , Ljungqvist , F , Luterbacher , J , Schneider , L , Stoffel , M , Wilson , R & Büntgen , U 2018 , ' Large-scale, millennial-length temperature reconstructions from tree-rings ' , Dendrochronologia , vol. 50 , pp. 81-90 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 253343672
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 40bb6583-0bc5-453c-8514-83ed74358cbb
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:256A9CF44254FD84E135713FDA2E5212
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85048796572
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4486-8904/work/59953615
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000438755400009
dc.descriptionSupported by the German Science Foundation, grants # Inst 247/665-1 FUGG and ES 161/9-1. SSG acknowledges support by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, KJA by US National Science Foundation grants AGS-1501856 and NSF AGS-1501834, and JL and LS by the Belmont Forum and JPI-Climate, Collaborative Research Action INTEGRATE.en
dc.description.abstractOver the past two decades, the dendroclimate community has produced various annually resolved, warm season temperature reconstructions for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Here we compare these tree-ring based reconstructions back to 831 CE and present a set of basic metrics to provide guidance for non-specialists on their interpretation and use. We specifically draw attention to (i) the imbalance between (numerous) short and (few) long site chronologies incorporated into the hemispheric means, (ii) the beneficial effects of including maximum latewood density chronologies in the recently published reconstructions, (iii) a decrease in reconstruction covariance prior to 1400 CE, and (iv) the varying amplitudes and trends of reconstructed temperatures over the past 1100 years. Whereas the reconstructions agree on several important features, such as warmth during medieval times and cooler temperatures in the 17th and 19th centuries, they still exhibit substantial differences during 13th and 14th centuries. We caution users who might consider combining the reconstructions through simple averaging that all reconstructions share some of the same underlying tree-ring data, and provide four recommendations to guide future efforts to better understand past millennium temperature variability.
dc.rights© 2018 Elsevier GmbH. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectTree-ring widthen
dc.subjectMaximum latewood densityen
dc.subjectWarm season temperaturesen
dc.subjectMedieval Warm Perioden
dc.subjectLittle Ice Ageen
dc.subjectNorthern Hemisphereen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.titleLarge-scale, millennial-length temperature reconstructions from tree-ringsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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