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dc.contributor.authorBerthet, Mélissa
dc.contributor.authorMesbahi, Geoffrey
dc.contributor.authorPajot, Aude
dc.contributor.authorCäsar, Cristiane
dc.contributor.authorNeumann, Christof
dc.contributor.authorZuberbuhler, Klaus
dc.identifier.citationBerthet , M , Mesbahi , G , Pajot , A , Cäsar , C , Neumann , C & Zuberbuhler , K 2019 , ' Titi monkeys combine alarm calls to create probabilistic meaning ' , Science Advances , vol. 5 , no. 5 , eaav3991 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 258269391
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: e2c2d7ee-bf56-4fba-8c5d-24d90bd6891c
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85063971746
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000470125000043
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8378-088X/work/64360760
dc.descriptionFunding: Our research was funded by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013)/ERC grant agreement no. 283871. We acknowledge further funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No. 324115–FRONTSEM (PI: Schlenker) and the Institut d’Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University (grants ANR-10-LABX-0087 IEC and ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02 PSL), from the Swiss National Science Foundation, and from the University of Neuchâtel. The research leading to the data from 2008 to 2010 received funding from the CAPES-Brazil, FAPEMIG-Brazil, S.B. Leakey Trust, and the University of St Andrews.en
dc.description.abstractPrevious work suggested that titi monkeys Callicebus nigrifrons combine two alarm calls, the A- and B-calls, to communicate about predator type and location. To explore how listeners process these sequences, we recorded alarm call sequences of six free-ranging groups exposed to terrestrial and aerial predator models, placed on the ground or in the canopy, and used multimodel inference to assess the information encoded in the sequences. We then carried out playback experiments to identify the features used by listeners to react to the available information. Results indicated that information about predator type and location were encoded by the proportion of B-call pairs relative to all call pairs of the sequence (i.e., proportion of BB-grams). The results suggest that the meaning of the sequence is not conveyed in a categorical but probabilistic manner. We discuss the implications of these findings for current theories of animal communication and language evolution.
dc.relation.ispartofScience Advancesen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleTiti monkeys combine alarm calls to create probabilistic meaningen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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