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dc.contributor.authorRozani, Ismini
dc.contributor.authorTsapara, Georgia
dc.contributor.authorWitts, Emily C.
dc.contributor.authorDeaville, S. James
dc.contributor.authorMiles, Gareth B.
dc.contributor.authorZagoraiou, Laskaro
dc.identifier.citationRozani , I , Tsapara , G , Witts , E C , Deaville , S J , Miles , G B & Zagoraiou , L 2019 , ' Pitx2 cholinergic interneurons are the source of C bouton synapses on brainstem motor neurons ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 9 , 4936 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 258320862
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: daac47f3-ba1c-4ad9-b6b5-a506f480e8ac
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:7700E808408F2A83A183FE379A4CDC31
dc.identifier.otherRIS: Rozani2019
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85063331604
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8624-4625/work/55901215
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000461762600053
dc.descriptionIR and LZ were funded by the European Union, Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013), by the European Union and Greek National Funds through the operational program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework, funding program: ARISTEIA II, and by Fondation Santé.en
dc.description.abstractCholinergic neuromodulation has been described throughout the brain and has been implicated in various functions including attention, food intake and response to stress. Cholinergic modulation is also thought to be important for regulating motor systems, as revealed by studies of large cholinergic synapses on spinal motor neurons, called C boutons, which seem to control motor neuron excitability in a task-dependent manner. C boutons on spinal motor neurons stem from spinal interneurons that express the transcription factor Pitx2. C boutons have also been identified on the motor neurons of specific cranial nuclei. However, the source and roles of cranial C boutons are less clear. Previous studies suggest that they originate from Pitx2+ and Pitx2− neurons, in contrast to spinal cord C boutons that originate solely from Pitx2 neurons. Here, we address this controversy using mouse genetics, and demonstrate that brainstem C boutons are Pitx2+ derived. We also identify new Pitx2 populations and map the cholinergic Pitx2 neurons of the mouse brain. Taken together, our data present important new information about the anatomical organization of cholinergic systems which impact motor systems of the brainstem. These findings will enable further analyses of the specific roles of cholinergic modulation in motor control.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2019. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titlePitx2 cholinergic interneurons are the source of C bouton synapses on brainstem motor neuronsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biophotonicsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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