From Mantle to Motzfeldt : a genetic model for syenite-hosted Ta,Nb-mineralisation
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A genetic model for the Motzfeldt Tantalum-Niobium-rich syenite in south-west Greenland, considered to be one of the world’s largest Ta prospects, is presented. The Motzfeldt primary magma formed early in regional Gardar (1273 ± 6 Ma) rifting. Isotope signatures indicate that the Hf had multiple sources involving juvenile Gardar Hf mixed with older (Palaeoproterozoic or Archaean) Hf. We infer that other High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) similarly had multiple sources. The magma differentiated in the crust and ascended before emplacement at the regional unconformity between Ketilidian basement and Eriksfjord supracrustals. The HFSE-rich magmas crystallised Ta-rich pyrochlore which formed pyrochlore-rich crystal mushes, and it is these pyrochlore-rich horizons, rich in Ta and Nb, that are the focus of exploration. The roof zone chilled and repeated sheeting at the roof provided a complex suite of cross-cutting syenite variants, including pyrochlore microsyenite, in a ‘Hot Sheeted Roof’ model. The area was subject to hydrothermal alteration which recrystallized alkali feldspar to coarse perthite and modified the mafic minerals to hematite, creating the friable and striking pink-nature of the Motzfeldt Sø Centre. Carbon and oxygen isotope investigation of carbonate constrains fluid evolution and shows that carbonate is primarily mantle-derived but late-stage hydrothermal alteration moved the oxygen isotopes towards more positive values (up to 21‰). The hydrothermal fluid was exceptionally fluorine-rich and mobilised many elements including U and Pb but did not transport HFSE such as Ta, Hf and Nb. Although the U and Pb content of the pyrochlore was enhanced by the fluid, the HFSE contents remained unchanged and therefore Hf isotopes were unaffected by fluid interaction. While the effect on hydrothermal alteration on the visual appearance of the rock is striking, magmatic processes concentrated HFSE including Ta and the hydrothermal phase has not altered the grade. Exploration for HFSE mineralisation commonly relies on airborne radiometric surveying which is particularly sensitive to the presence of U, Th. A crucial lesson from Motzfeldt is that the best target is unaltered pyrochlore which was identified less easily by radiometric survey. Careful petrological/mineral studies are necessary before airborne survey data can be fully interpreted.
Finch , A A , McCreath , J A , Reekie , C D J , Hutchison , W , Ismaila , A , Armour-Brown , A , Andersen , T & Simonsen , S L 2019 , ' From Mantle to Motzfeldt : a genetic model for syenite-hosted Ta,Nb-mineralisation ' , Ore Geology Reviews , vol. 107 , pp. 402-416 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.02.032
Ore Geology Reviews
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s).Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and will be available following a 12-month embargo. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.02.032