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dc.contributor.authorHumphreys, Rosalind K.
dc.contributor.authorRuxton, Graeme D.
dc.identifier.citationHumphreys , R K & Ruxton , G D 2018 , ' What is known and what is not yet known about deflection of the point of a predator's attack ' , Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , vol. 123 , no. 3 , pp. 483-495 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252596536
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 7e0e252c-05da-4d17-99fa-a1b6d05501f5
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85043471484
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000426814700001
dc.description.abstractDeflection occurs in predator-prey interactions where prey possess traits that influence the position of the predator's initial contact with the prey's body in a way that enhances the prey's probability of survival when attacked. As an anti-predatory defence occurring late in the sequence of an attack, deflection is an understudied but fascinating strategy that involves a range of unusual adaptations in diverse prey species. Deflective traits have been postulated to be important to the defensive strategies of a range of organisms, but although evidence for their existence is variable among groups, we argue that previous research neglects some promising taxa. As a defence, deflection will probably play a crucial role in the behavioural ecology and evolution of both prey species and their predators; as such, it warrants greater interest from zoologists. Here, we first summarize what is known about deflection from the current literature. We next offer predictions about the co-evolutionary possibilities surrounding deflection, based on the benefits and costs experienced by prey and their predators. Finally, we outline the most interesting outstanding avenues for future research in the field of deflection and make new suggestions as to how they could be explored usefully.
dc.relation.ispartofBiological Journal of the Linnean Societyen
dc.rights© 2018, The Linnean Society of London. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectAnti-predatory defenceen
dc.subjectPerceptual exploitationen
dc.subjectPredator-prey interactionsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematicsen
dc.titleWhat is known and what is not yet known about deflection of the point of a predator's attacken
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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