Selective copying of the majority suggests children are broadly "optimal-" rather than "over-" imitators
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Human children, in contrast to other species, are frequently cast as prolific “over-imitators”. However, previous studies of “over-imitation” have overlooked many important real-world social dynamics, and may thus provide an inaccurate account of this seemingly puzzling and potentially maladaptive phenomenon. Here we investigate this topic using a cultural evolutionary approach, focusing particularly on the key adaptive learning strategy of majority-biased copying. Most “over-imitation” research has been conducted using consistent demonstrations to the observer, but we systematically varied the frequency of demonstrators that 4- to 6-year-old children observed performing a causally irrelevant action. Children who “over-imitate” inflexibly should copy the majority regardless of whether the majority solution omits or includes a causally irrelevant action. However, we found that children calibrated their tendency to acquire the majority behavior, such that copying did not extend to majorities that performed irrelevant actions. These results are consistent with a highly functional, adaptive integration of social and causal information, rather than explanations implying unselective copying or causal misunderstanding. This suggests that our species might be better characterized as broadly “optimal-” rather than “over-” imitators.
Evans , C L , Laland , K N , Carpenter , M & Kendal , R L 2018 , ' Selective copying of the majority suggests children are broadly "optimal-" rather than "over-" imitators ' , Developmental Science , vol. 21 , no. 5 , e12637 . https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12637
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12637
DescriptionThis research was supported by an ERC Advanced Investigator grant (EVOCULTURE, Ref: 232823) awarded to KNL, and a BBSRC studentship awarded to CLE.
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