The evolution of ependymin-related proteins
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Background: Ependymins were originally defined as fish-specific secreted glycoproteins involved in central nervous system plasticity and memory formation. Subsequent research revealed that these proteins represent a fish-specific lineage of a larger ependymin-related protein family (EPDRs). EPDRs have now been identified in a number of bilaterian animals and have been implicated in diverse non-neural functions. The recent discoveries of putative EPDRs in unicellular holozoans and an expanded EPDR family with potential roles in conspecific communication in crown-of-thorns starfish suggest that the distribution and diversity of EPDRs is significantly broader than currently understood. Results :We undertook a systematic survey to determine the distribution and evolution of EPDRs in eukaryotes. In addition to Bilateria, EPDR genes were identified in Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera, Choanoflagellatea, Filasterea, Apusozoa, Amoebozoa, Charophyta and Percolozoa, and tentatively in Cercozoa and the orphan group Malawimonadidae. EPDRs appear to be absent from prokaryotes and many eukaryote groups including ecdysozoans, fungi, stramenopiles, alveolates, haptistans and cryptistans. The EPDR family can be divided into two major clades and has undergone lineage-specific expansions in a number of metazoan lineages, including in poriferans, molluscs and cephalochordates. Variation in a core set of conserved residues in EPDRs reveals the presence of three distinct protein types; however, 3D modelling predicts overall protein structures to be similar. Conclusions: Our results reveal an early eukaryotic origin of the EPDR gene family and a dynamic pattern of gene duplication and gene loss in animals. This research provides a phylogenetic framework for the analysis of the functional evolution of this gene family.
McDougall , C , Hammond , M , Dailey , S C , Somorjai , I M L , Cummins , S & Degnan , B 2018 , ' The evolution of ependymin-related proteins ' , BMC Evolutionary Biology , vol. 18 , 182 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1306-y
BMC Evolutionary Biology
© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
DescriptionThis research was funded by Australian Research Council grants to BMD and SFC (DP130102543). IMLS gratefully acknowledges start-up funding for her lab from MASTS (Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland) and seedcorn funding through the Wellcome Trust ISSF3 grant number 204821/Z/16/Z.
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