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dc.contributor.authorCarstairs, Sharon A.
dc.contributor.authorCaton, Samantha J
dc.contributor.authorBlundell-Birtill, Pamela
dc.contributor.authorRolls, Barbara J.
dc.contributor.authorHetherington, Marion M.
dc.contributor.authorCecil, Joanne E.
dc.identifier.citationCarstairs , S A , Caton , S J , Blundell-Birtill , P , Rolls , B J , Hetherington , M M & Cecil , J E 2018 , ' Can reduced intake associated with downsizing of a high energy dense meal item be offset by increased vegetable variety in 3-5-year-old children? ' , Nutrients , vol. 10 , no. 12 , 1879 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 256681962
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 1b967abf-a98d-4d81-9b4f-8ccf46ec1b19
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85057969637
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-6593-5972/work/51470243
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4779-6037/work/60196853
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000455073200060
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the BBSRC, Diet and Nutrition Research Industry Club [grant numbers BB/M027384/1].en
dc.description.abstractLarge portions of energy dense foods promote overconsumption but offering small portions might lead to compensatory intake of other foods. Offering a variety of vegetables could help promote vegetable intake and offset the effect of reducing the portion size (PS) of a high energy dense (HED) food. Therefore, we tested the effect on intake of reducing the PS of a HED unit lunch item while varying the variety of the accompanying low energy dense (LED) vegetables. In a within-subjects design, 43 3–5-year-old pre-schoolers were served a lunch meal in their nursery on 8 occasions. Children were served a standard (100%) or downsized (60%) portion of a HED sandwich with a side of LED vegetables offered as a single (carrot, cherry tomato, cucumber) or variety (all 3 types) item. Reducing the PS of a HED sandwich reduced sandwich (g) (p < 0.001) and total meal intake (kcal) consumption (p = 0.001) without an increased intake of other foods in the meal (LED vegetables (p = 0.169); dessert (p = 0.835)). Offering a variety of vegetables, compared with a single vegetable, increased vegetable intake (g) (p = 0.003) across PS conditions. Downsizing and variety were effective strategies individually for altering pre-schoolers’ intakes of HED and LED meal items, however, using variety to offset HED downsizing was not supported in the present study.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectPortion sizeen
dc.subjectPre-school childrenen
dc.subjectEating behavioren
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectRJ Pediatricsen
dc.titleCan reduced intake associated with downsizing of a high energy dense meal item be offset by increased vegetable variety in 3-5-year-old children?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Health Psychologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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