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dc.contributor.authorRahman, Samiur
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Duncan Alexander
dc.identifier.citationRahman , S & Robertson , D A 2018 , ' Radar micro-Doppler signatures of drones and birds at K-band and W-band ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 8 , 17396 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 256565966
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 40d0e2c3-ded7-40d7-b094-62abe6cfda0c
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85057280387
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4042-2772/work/51261023
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5477-4218/work/51261125
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000451184500001
dc.descriptionThe authors acknowledge the funding received from the Science and Technology Facilities Council which has supported this work under grant ST/N006569/1en
dc.description.abstractDue to the substantial increase in the number of affordable drones in the consumer market and their regrettable misuse, there is a need for efficient technology to detect drones in airspace. This paper presents the characteristic radar micro-Doppler properties of drones and birds. Drones and birds both induce micro-Doppler signatures due to their propeller blade rotation and wingbeats, respectively. These distinctive signatures can then be used to differentiate a drone from a bird, along with studying them separately. Here, experimental measurements of micro-Doppler signatures of different types of drones and birds are presented and discussed. The data have been collected using two radars operating at different frequencies; K-band (24 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz). Three different models of drones and four species of birds of varying sizes have been used for data collection. The results clearly demonstrate that a phase coherent radar system can retrieve highly reliable and distinctive micro-Doppler signatures of these flying targets, both at K-band and W-band. Comparison of the signatures obtained at the two frequencies indicates that the micro-Doppler return from the W-band radar has higher SNR. However, micro-Doppler features in the K-band radar returns also reveal the micro-motion characteristics of drones and birds very effectively.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright the Authors 2018. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectTK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineeringen
dc.titleRadar micro-Doppler signatures of drones and birds at K-band and W-banden
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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