Amphioxus functional genomics and the origins of vertebrate gene regulation
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Vertebrates have greatly elaborated the basic chordate body plan and evolved highly distinctive genomes that have been sculpted by two whole-genome duplications. Here we sequence the genome of the Mediterranean amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) and characterize DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications and transcriptomes across multiple developmental stages and adult tissues to investigate the evolution of the regulation of the chordate genome. Comparisons with vertebrates identify an intermediate stage in the evolution of differentially methylated enhancers, and a high conservation of gene expression and its cis-regulatory logic between amphioxus and vertebrates that occurs maximally at an earlier mid-embryonic phylotypic period. We analyse regulatory evolution after whole-genome duplications, and find that—in vertebrates—over 80% of broadly expressed gene families with multiple paralogues derived from whole-genome duplications have members that restricted their ancestral expression, and underwent specialization rather than subfunctionalization. Counter-intuitively, paralogues that restricted their expression increased the complexity of their regulatory landscapes. These data pave the way for a better understanding of the regulatory principles that underlie key vertebrate innovations.
Marletaz , F , Firbas , P , Maeso , I , Tena , J , Bogdanovic , O , Perry , M , Wyatt , C , de la Calle-Mustienes , E , Bertrand , S , Burguera , D , Acemel , R , van Heeringen , S , Naranjo , S , Herrera-Ubeda , C , Skvortsova , K , Jimenez-Gancedo , S , Aldea , D , Marquez , Y , Buono , L , Kozmikova , I , Permanyer , J , Louis , A , Albuixech-Crespo , B , Le Petillon , Y , Leon Florian , A , Subirana , L , Balwierz , P J , Duckett , P , Farahani , E , Aury , J M , Mangenot , S , Wincker , P , Albalat , R , Benito-Gutierrez , E , Canestro , C , Castro , F , D'Aniello , S , Ferrier , D E K , Huang , S , Laudet , V , Marais , G , Pontarotti , P , Schubert , M , Seitz , H , Somorjai , I M L , Takahashi , T , Mirabeau , O , Xu , A , Yu , J-K , Carninci , P , Martinez-Morales , J , Crollius , H , Kozmik , Z , Weirauch , M , Garcia-Fernandez , J , Lister , R , Lenhard , B , Holland , P , Escriva , H , Gomez-Skarmeta , J L & Irimia , M 2018 , ' Amphioxus functional genomics and the origins of vertebrate gene regulation ' , Nature , vol. 564 , no. 7734 , pp. 64-70 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0734-6
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DescriptionThis research was funded primarily by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 and Seventh Framework Program FP7 research and innovation programs (ERC-AdG-LS8-740041 to J.L.G.-S., ERC-StG-LS2-637591 to M.I., a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant (658521) to I.M. and a FP7/2007-2013-ERC-268513 to P.W.H.H.), the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (BFU2016-74961-P to J.L.G.-S., RYC-2016-20089 to I.M., BFU2014-55076-P and BFU2017-89201-P to M.I. and BFU2014-55738-REDT to J.L.G.-S, M.I. and J.R.M.-M), the ‘Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2013-2017’(SEV-2012-0208), the ‘Unidad de Excelencia María de Maetzu 2017-2021’(MDM-2016-0687), the People Program (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program FP7 under REA grant agreement number 607142 (DevCom) to J.L.G.-S., and the CNRS and the ANR (ANR16-CE12-0008-01) to H.E. O.B. was supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA; DE140101962). We acknowledge the support of the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya and of the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MEIC) to the EMBL partnership. Additional sources of funding for all authors are listed in Supplementary Information.
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