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dc.contributor.authorEntwistle, Frances
dc.contributor.authorCoote, Peter J.
dc.identifier.citationEntwistle , F & Coote , P J 2018 , ' Evaluation of greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella , as a novel in vivo model for non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria infections and antibiotic treatments ' , Journal of Medical Microbiology , vol. 67 , 000696 , pp. 585-597 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252130625
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: b05e689f-c0a2-4e59-af15-594e7bf3f329
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85045123025
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-5190-805X/work/47531703
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000429658500017
dc.descriptionFunding information: University of St Andrews.en
dc.description.abstractPurpose: To evaluate the suitability of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model and drug-screening tool for mycobacteria infections. Methodology: Larvae were infected using a range of inoculum sizes from a variety of rapid-growing mycobacteria, including strains of M. fortuitum, M. marinum and M. aurum. Larval survival, internal bacterial burden, and the effects of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid and rifampicin treatment on larval survival were measured over 144h. The effects of these anti-mycobacterial drugs on phagocytosis and circulating hemocyte numbers were also examined using microscopy. Results: Larval survival decreased after infection with M. fortuitum and M. marinum in a dose-dependent manner, but remained unaffected by M. aurum. Heat-killed bacteria did not cause larval death. Where antibiotic monotherapy was efficacious, larval survival post-infection increased in a dose-dependent fashion. However, efficacy varied between different antibiotics and species of infecting mycobacteria and, apart from rifampicin, efficacy in vivo correlated poorly with the in vitro MICs. Combinations of antibiotics led to higher survival of infected larvae than antibiotic monotherapy. Selected antibiotic treatments that enhanced larval survival reduced the overall internal burden of infecting mycobacteria but did not eradicate the pathogens. Administration of amikacin or ethambutol to uninfected larvae induced an initial transient increase in the numbers of circulating hemocytes and reduced the phagocytic rate of hemocytes in larvae infected with M. marinum. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the potential of employing a wax moth larvae model for studying fast-growing mycobacteria infections, and as a cheap, effective system for initial screening of novel treatments.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Medical Microbiologyen
dc.rights© 2018, the Author(s). This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectGalleria mellonellaen
dc.subjectMycobacterium fortuitumen
dc.subjectMycobacterium marinumen
dc.subjectMycobacterium tuberculosisen
dc.subjectInvertebrate infection modelen
dc.subjectAntibiotic susceptibilityen
dc.subjectQR Microbiologyen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectRM Therapeutics. Pharmacologyen
dc.subjectImmunology and Microbiology(all)en
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleEvaluation of greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella, as a novel in vivo model for non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria infections and antibiotic treatmentsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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