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dc.contributor.authorKrupenye, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorTan, Jingzhi
dc.contributor.authorHare, Brian
dc.identifier.citationKrupenye , C , Tan , J & Hare , B 2018 , ' Bonobos voluntarily hand food to others but not toys or tools ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 285 , no. 1886 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 256148617
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9edc5078-6210-4c5e-9103-4806058ee829
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: urn:88be3d6000b5f50e940fe702ef399faa
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 30209230
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85054050099
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-2029-1872/work/49140763
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000444626300018
dc.descriptionThis research was supported in part by National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship DGE-1106401 and European Commission Marie-Sklodowska Curie European Fellowship MENTALIZINGORIGINS to C.K. and National Science Foundation grants NSF-BCS-08-27552-02 and NSF-BCS-10-25172 to B.H.en
dc.description.abstractA key feature of human prosociality is direct transfers, the most active form of sharing in which donors voluntarily hand over resources in their possession. Direct transfers buffer hunter-gatherers against foraging shortfalls. The emergence and elaboration of this behaviour thus likely played a key role in human evolution by promoting cooperative interdependence and ensuring that humans' growing energetic needs (e.g. for increasing brain size) were more reliably met. According to the strong prosociality hypothesis, among great apes only humans exhibit sufficiently strong prosocial motivations to directly transfer food. The versatile prosociality hypothesis suggests instead that while other apes may make transfers in constrained settings, only humans share flexibly across food and non-food contexts. In controlled experiments, chimpanzees typically transfer objects but not food, supporting both hypotheses. In this paper, we show in two experiments that bonobos directly transfer food but not non-food items. These findings show that, in some contexts, bonobos exhibit a human-like motivation for direct food transfer. However, humans share across a far wider range of contexts, lending support to the versatile prosociality hypothesis. Our species' unusual prosocial flexibility is likely built on a prosocial foundation we share through common descent with the other apes.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2018 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectHuman evolutionen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleBonobos voluntarily hand food to others but not toys or toolsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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