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dc.contributor.authorBüntgen, Ulf
dc.contributor.authorWacker, Lukas
dc.contributor.authorGalván, J. Diego
dc.contributor.authorArnold, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorArseneault, Dominique
dc.contributor.authorBaillie, Michael
dc.contributor.authorBeer, Jürg
dc.contributor.authorBernabei, Mauro
dc.contributor.authorBleicher, Niels
dc.contributor.authorBoswijk, Gretel
dc.contributor.authorBräuning, Achim
dc.contributor.authorCarrer, Marco
dc.contributor.authorLjungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier
dc.contributor.authorCherubini, Paolo
dc.contributor.authorChristl, Marcus
dc.contributor.authorChristie, Duncan A.
dc.contributor.authorClark, Peter W.
dc.contributor.authorCook, Edward R.
dc.contributor.authorD’Arrigo, Rosanne
dc.contributor.authorDavi, Nicole
dc.contributor.authorEggertsson, Ólafur
dc.contributor.authorEsper, Jan
dc.contributor.authorFowler, Anthony M.
dc.contributor.authorGedalof, Ze’ev
dc.contributor.authorGennaretti, Fabio
dc.contributor.authorGrießinger, Jussi
dc.contributor.authorGrissino-Mayer, Henri
dc.contributor.authorGrudd, Håkan
dc.contributor.authorGunnarson, Björn E.
dc.contributor.authorHantemirov, Rashit
dc.contributor.authorHerzig, Franz
dc.contributor.authorHessl, Amy
dc.contributor.authorHeussner, Karl-Uwe
dc.contributor.authorJull, A. J. Timothy
dc.contributor.authorKukarskih, Vladimir
dc.contributor.authorKirdyanov, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorKolář, Tomáš
dc.contributor.authorKrusic, Paul J.
dc.contributor.authorKyncl, Tomáš
dc.contributor.authorLara, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorLeQuesne, Carlos
dc.contributor.authorLinderholm, Hans W.
dc.contributor.authorLoader, Neil J.
dc.contributor.authorLuckman, Brian
dc.contributor.authorMiyake, Fusa
dc.contributor.authorMyglan, Vladimir S.
dc.contributor.authorNicolussi, Kurt
dc.contributor.authorOppenheimer, Clive
dc.contributor.authorPalmer, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorPanyushkina, Irina
dc.contributor.authorPederson, Neil
dc.contributor.authorRybníček, Michal
dc.contributor.authorSchweingruber, Fritz H.
dc.contributor.authorSeim, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorSigl, Michael
dc.contributor.authorChurakova (Sidorova), Olga
dc.contributor.authorSpeer, James H.
dc.contributor.authorSynal, Hans-Arno
dc.contributor.authorTegel, Willy
dc.contributor.authorTreydte, Kerstin
dc.contributor.authorVillalba, Ricardo
dc.contributor.authorWiles, Greg
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Rob
dc.contributor.authorWinship, Lawrence J.
dc.contributor.authorWunder, Jan
dc.contributor.authorYang, Bao
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Giles H. F.
dc.identifier.citationBüntgen , U , Wacker , L , Galván , J D , Arnold , S , Arseneault , D , Baillie , M , Beer , J , Bernabei , M , Bleicher , N , Boswijk , G , Bräuning , A , Carrer , M , Ljungqvist , F C , Cherubini , P , Christl , M , Christie , D A , Clark , P W , Cook , E R , D’Arrigo , R , Davi , N , Eggertsson , Ó , Esper , J , Fowler , A M , Gedalof , Z , Gennaretti , F , Grießinger , J , Grissino-Mayer , H , Grudd , H , Gunnarson , B E , Hantemirov , R , Herzig , F , Hessl , A , Heussner , K-U , Jull , A J T , Kukarskih , V , Kirdyanov , A , Kolář , T , Krusic , P J , Kyncl , T , Lara , A , LeQuesne , C , Linderholm , H W , Loader , N J , Luckman , B , Miyake , F , Myglan , V S , Nicolussi , K , Oppenheimer , C , Palmer , J , Panyushkina , I , Pederson , N , Rybníček , M , Schweingruber , F H , Seim , A , Sigl , M , Churakova (Sidorova) , O , Speer , J H , Synal , H-A , Tegel , W , Treydte , K , Villalba , R , Wiles , G , Wilson , R , Winship , L J , Wunder , J , Yang , B & Young , G H F 2018 , ' Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE ' , Nature Communications , vol. 9 , 3605 , pp. 1-7 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 255220438
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: aba58669-d83d-4d02-ad98-f884d328d5a4
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:AEF3A3740AF92FBFE793CCAB2F8E0A79
dc.identifier.otherRIS: Büntgen2018
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85052992362
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4486-8904/work/59953597
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000443797400006
dc.descriptionThis study was funded by the WSL-internal COSMIC project (5233.00148.001.01), the ETHZ (Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF Grant 200021L_157187/1), and as the Czech Republic Grant Agency project no. 17-22102s.en
dc.description.abstractThough tree-ring chronologies are annually resolved, their dating has never been independently validated at the global scale. Moreover, it is unknown if atmospheric radiocarbon enrichment events of cosmogenic origin leave spatiotemporally consistent fingerprints. Here we measure the 14C content in 484 individual tree rings formed in the periods 770–780 and 990–1000 CE. Distinct 14C excursions starting in the boreal summer of 774 and the boreal spring of 993 ensure the precise dating of 44 tree-ring records from five continents. We also identify a meridional decline of 11-year mean atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations across both hemispheres. Corroborated by historical eye-witness accounts of red auroras, our results suggest a global exposure to strong solar proton radiation. To improve understanding of the return frequency and intensity of past cosmic events, which is particularly important for assessing the potential threat of space weather on our society, further annually resolved 14C measurements are needed.
dc.relation.ispartofNature Communicationsen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.titleTree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CEen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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