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dc.contributor.authorPereira, Andreia
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Danielle
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter
dc.contributor.authorMatias, Luis
dc.identifier.citationPereira , A , Harris , D , Tyack , P & Matias , L 2017 , Lloyd's mirror effect in fin whale calls and its use to infer the depth of vocalizing animals . in Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics . vol. 27 , Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics , Acoustical Society of America , 4th International Conference on the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life 2016 , Dublin , Ireland , 10/07/16 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 255426128
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 48e3bd9b-006e-4b4a-a528-ddf9d5d639e1
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85011024559
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887911
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1447-1420/work/61370037
dc.description.abstractThe ocean acoustic Lloyd's Mirror effect (LME) is produced by interference between the direct-path and the sea surface phase-reversed reflection of a sound as observed at a receiver. It results in a frequencydependent interference pattern that can be observed in a spectrogram. Many studies have found variations of spectral characteristics of the 20 Hz 'regular' fin whale call, which seem to reflect geographic differences. However, variability of spectral measurements may occur due to the LME. Using a bout of regular calls with estimated ranges, our study aimed to: 1) show and analyze differences of call features due to the LME; and 2) estimate the depth of the vocalizing whale. The composite spectrogram showed that different spectral characteristics of the calls could be identified within the same bout. We developed transmission loss models considering the LME for a fin whale call generated close to the surface and recorded at the sea bottom by an instrument. Our results suggested that some differences measured in fin whale calls could be related to the LME. Inference of depths of calling whale was not straightforward and needed to be assessed at a finer temporal scale than the full bout of calls.
dc.publisherAcoustical Society of America
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of Meetings on Acousticsen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesProceedings of Meetings on Acousticsen
dc.rights© 2018, Acoustical Society of America. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.subjectQA Mathematicsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectAcoustics and Ultrasonicsen
dc.titleLloyd's mirror effect in fin whale calls and its use to infer the depth of vocalizing animalsen
dc.typeConference itemen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen

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