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dc.contributor.authorTodd, Joe
dc.contributor.authorChristoffersen, Poul
dc.contributor.authorZwinger, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorRåback, Peter
dc.contributor.authorChauché, Nolwenn
dc.contributor.authorBenn, Doug
dc.contributor.authorLuckman, Adrian
dc.contributor.authorRyan, Johnny
dc.contributor.authorToberg, Nick
dc.contributor.authorSlater, Donald
dc.contributor.authorHubbard, Alun
dc.identifier.citationTodd , J , Christoffersen , P , Zwinger , T , Råback , P , Chauché , N , Benn , D , Luckman , A , Ryan , J , Toberg , N , Slater , D & Hubbard , A 2018 , ' A full-Stokes 3D calving model applied to a large Greenlandic glacier ' , Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface , vol. 123 , no. 3 , pp. 410-432 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252216010
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 1cc468fb-efd8-4c86-bf02-7f59d5ce362a
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: urn:e3fe5900126a4233797f4eaf5bae7c1e
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85042619467
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000430649400001
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3604-0886/work/64697371
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3183-043X/work/65014583
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8394-6149/work/70619153
dc.description.abstractIceberg calving accounts for around half of all mass loss from both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The diverse nature of calving and its complex links to both internal dynamics and climate make it challenging to incorporate into models of glaciers and ice sheets. Here, we present results from a new open-source 3D full-Stokes calving model developed in Elmer/Ice. The calving model implements the crevasse depth criterion, which states that calving occurs when surface and basal crevasses penetrate the full thickness of the glacier. The model also implements a new 3D rediscretization approach and a time-evolution scheme which allow the calving front to evolve realistically through time. We test the model in an application to Store Glacier, one of the largest outlet glaciers in West Greenland, and find that it realistically simulates the seasonal advance and retreat when two principal environmental forcings are applied. These forcings are 1) submarine melting in distributed and concentrated forms, and 2) ice mélange buttressing. We find that ice mélange buttressing is primarily responsible for Store Glacier's seasonal advance and retreat. Distributed submarine melting prevents the glacier from forming a permanent floating tongue, while concentrated plume melting has a disproportionately large and potentially destabilizing effect on the calving front position. Our results also highlight the importance of basal topography, which exerts a strong control on calving, explaining why Store Glacier has remained stable during a period when neighboring glaciers have undergone prolonged interannual retreat.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surfaceen
dc.rights© 2018 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at:
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQE Geologyen
dc.titleA full-Stokes 3D calving model applied to a large Greenlandic glacieren
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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