Influence of zinc on glycosaminoglycan neutralisation during coagulation
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Heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparin are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that serve as key natural and pharmacological anticoagulants. During normal clotting such agents require to be inactivated or neutralised. Several proteins have been reported to facilitate their neutralisation, which reside in platelet α-granules and are released following platelet activation. These include histidine-rich-glycoprotein (HRG), fibrinogen and high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK). Zinc ions (Zn2+) are also present in α-granules at a high concentration and participate in the propagation of coagulation by influencing the binding of neutralising proteins to GAGs. Zn2+ in many cases increases the affinity of these proteins to GAGs, and is thus an important regulator of GAG neutralisation and haemostasis. Binding of Zn2+ to HRG, HMWK and fibrinogen is mediated predominantly through coordination to histidine residues but the mechanisms by which Zn2+ increases the affinity of the proteins for GAGs are not yet completely clear. Here we will review current knowledge of how Zn2+ binds to and influences the neutralisation of GAGs and describe the importance of this process in both normal and pathogenic clotting.
Sobczak , A I S , Pitt , S J & Stewart , A J 2018 , ' Influence of zinc on glycosaminoglycan neutralisation during coagulation ' , Metallomics , vol. 10 , no. 9 , pp. 1180-1190 . https://doi.org/10.1039/C8MT00159F
Copyright 2018 the Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence
DescriptionThis work was supported by the British Heart Foundation (grant codes: PG/15/9/31270 and FS/15/42/31556). SJP is supported by a Royal Society of Edinburgh Biomedical Fellowship.
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