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dc.contributor.authorMicheletti, Alberto Jacopo Cesare
dc.contributor.authorRuxton, Graeme Douglas
dc.contributor.authorGardner, Andy
dc.identifier.citationMicheletti , A J C , Ruxton , G D & Gardner , A 2018 , ' Why war is a man's game ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 285 , no. 1884 , 20180975 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 254544119
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 38a1389e-4215-4b0f-bcff-7c8052f6db69
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85052612001
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8943-6609/work/60427459
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000441725900012
dc.descriptionA.J.C.M. is supported by a Ph.D. studentship from the School of Biology, University of St Andrews, and A.G. is supported by a Natural Environment Research Council Independent Research Fellowship (NE/K009524/1) and a European Research Council Consolidator Grant (771387).en
dc.description.abstractInterest in the evolutionary origins and drivers of warfare in ancient and contemporary small-scale human societies has greatly increased in the last decade, and has been particularly spurred by exciting archaeological discoveries that suggest our ancestors led more violent lives than previously documented. However, the striking observation that warfare is an almost-exclusively male activity remains unexplained. Three general hypotheses have been proposed, concerning greater male effectiveness in warfare, lower male costs, and patrilocality. But while each of these factors might explain why warfare is more common in men, they do not convincingly explain why women almost never participate. Here, we develop a mathematical model to formally assess these hypotheses. Surprisingly, we find that exclusively male warfare may evolve even in the absence of any such sex differences, though sex biases in these parameters can make this evolutionary outcome more likely. The qualitative observation that participation in warfare is almost exclusive to one sex is ultimately explained by the fundamentally sex-specific nature of Darwinian competition—in fitness terms, men compete with men and women with women. These results reveal a potentially key role for ancestral conditions in shaping our species' patterns of sexual division of labour and violence-related adaptations and behavioural disorders.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectSex differencesen
dc.subjectBehavioural disordersen
dc.subjectHT Communities. Classes. Racesen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectU Military Science (General)en
dc.subjectSDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutionsen
dc.titleWhy war is a man's gameen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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