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dc.contributor.authorFröbel, Markus
dc.contributor.authorFries, Felix
dc.contributor.authorSchwab, Tobias
dc.contributor.authorLenk, Simone
dc.contributor.authorLeo, Karl
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte C.
dc.contributor.authorReineke, Sebastian
dc.identifier.citationFröbel , M , Fries , F , Schwab , T , Lenk , S , Leo , K , Gather , M C & Reineke , S 2018 , ' Three-terminal RGB full-color OLED pixels for ultrahigh density displays ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 8 , 9684 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 254680230
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 67833f5b-2104-41f3-a32f-ed11aed44de0
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85049214456
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4857-5562/work/47136507
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000436233600012
dc.description.abstractIn recent years, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology has been a rapidly evolving field of research, successfully making the transition to commercial applications such as mobile phones and other small portable devices. OLEDs provide efficient generation of light, excellent color quality, and allow for innovative display designs, e.g., curved shapes, mechanically flexible and/or transparent devices. Especially their self emissive nature is a highly desirable feature for display applications. In this work, we demonstrate an approach for full-color OLED pixels that are fabricated by vertical stacking of a red-, green-, and blue-emitting unit. Each unit can be addressed separately which allows for efficient generation of every color that is accessible by superpositioning the spectra of the individual emission units. Here, we use a combination of time division multiplexing and pulse width modulation to achieve efficient color mixing. The presented device design requires only three independently addressable electrodes, simplifying both fabrication and electrical driving. The device is built in a top-emission geometry, which is highly desirable for display fabrication as the pixel can be directly deposited onto back-plane electronics. Despite the top-emission design and the application of three silver layers within the device, there is only a minor color shift even for large viewing angles. The color space spanned by the three emission sub-units exceeds the sRGB space, providing more saturated green/yellow/red colors. Furthermore, the electrical performance of each individual unit is on par with standard single emission unit OLEDs, showing very low leakage currents and achieving brightness levels above 1000 cd/m2 at moderate voltages of around 3-4 V.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectT Technologyen
dc.titleThree-terminal RGB full-color OLED pixels for ultrahigh density displaysen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Organic Semiconductor Centreen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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