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dc.contributor.authorUlloa, Andrés
dc.contributor.authorGázquez, Fernando
dc.contributor.authorSanz-Arranz, Aurelio
dc.contributor.authorMedina, Jesús
dc.contributor.authorRull, Fernando
dc.contributor.authorCalaforra, José María
dc.contributor.authorAlvarado, Guillermo
dc.contributor.authorMartínez, María
dc.contributor.authorAvard, Geoffroy
dc.contributor.authorde Moor, J. Maarten
dc.contributor.authorDe Waele, Jo
dc.identifier.citationUlloa , A , Gázquez , F , Sanz-Arranz , A , Medina , J , Rull , F , Calaforra , J M , Alvarado , G , Martínez , M , Avard , G , de Moor , J M & De Waele , J 2018 , ' Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity ' , International Journal of Speleology , vol. 47 , no. 2 , pp. 229-246 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 254607049
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: fb26661a-6a92-44c1-9d85-aea4d0b8d06f
dc.identifier.othercrossref: 10.5038/1827-806X.47.2.2198
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85053146461
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000452394100004
dc.descriptionThis project was supported by Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Geológicas of Universidad de Costa Rica (830-B7-A00) and the Costa Rican Department of Science and Technology (MICITT) fund FI-160B-14 to Andrés Ulloa Carmiol.en
dc.description.abstractThe caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave drip water and compilation of geochemical analyses of the Irazú volcanic lake (~150 m above the cave level) and fumarole analyses were conducted between 1991 and 2014. We identified forty-eight different mineral phases, mostly rare hydrated sulfates of the alunite, halotrichite, copiapite, kieserite and rozenite groups, thirteen of which are described here as cave minerals for the first time. This includes the first occurrence in cave environments of aplowite, bieberite, boyleite, dietrichite, ferricopiapite, ferrinatrite, lausenite, lishizhenite, magnesiocopiapite, marinellite, pentahydrite, szomolnokite, and wupatkiite. The presence of other new cave minerals such as tolbachite, mercallite, rhomboclase, cyanochroite, and retgersite, is likely but could not be confirmed by various mineralogical techniques. Uplifting of sulfurous gases, water seepage from the Irazú volcanic lake and hydrothermal interactions with the volcanic host rock are responsible for such extreme mineralogical diversity. These findings make the caves of the Irazú volcano a world-type- reference locality for investigations on the formation and assemblage of sulfate minerals and the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur, with potential implications for Astrobiology and Planetary science.
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Speleologyen
dc.rights© 2018 The Author(s). Open Access article. The author’s rights are protected under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.en
dc.subjectHydrated sulfatesen
dc.subjectSulfate speleothemsen
dc.subjectVolcanic cavesen
dc.subjectCrater lakeen
dc.subjectCave minerogenesisen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQE Geologyen
dc.titleExtremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activityen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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