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dc.contributor.authorHowe, Eric J.
dc.contributor.authorBuckland, Stephen T.
dc.contributor.authorDesprés-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne
dc.contributor.authorKühl, Hjalmar
dc.identifier.citationHowe , E J , Buckland , S T , Després-Einspenner , M-L & Kühl , H 2017 , ' Distance sampling with camera traps ' , Methods in Ecology and Evolution , vol. 8 , no. 11 , pp. 1558-1565 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 249396230
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3908ba6f-6b96-480d-a5e7-9bb1c64b1179
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85019123854
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000414701900019
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9939-709X/work/73701024
dc.descriptionWe thank the Robert Bosch Foundation, the Max Planck Society, and the University of St Andrews for funding. The data files from which densities of Maxwell's duikers were estimated using Distance software, and data describing start times of videos of Maxwell's duikers, have been archived at the Dryad data repository ( (Howe et al. 2017).en
dc.description.abstract1.  Reliable estimates of animal density and abundance are essential for effective wildlife conservation and management. Camera trapping has proven efficient for sampling multiple species, but statistical estimators of density from camera trapping data for species that cannot be individually identified are still in development. 2.  We extend point-transect methods for estimating animal density to accommodate data from camera traps, allowing researchers to exploit existing distance sampling theory and software for designing studies and analyzing data. We tested it by simulation, and used it to estimate densities of Maxwell’s duikers (Philantomba maxwellii) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. 3.  Densities estimated from simulated data were unbiased when we assumed animals were not available for detection during long periods of rest. Estimated duiker densities were higher than recent estimates from line transect surveys, which are believed to underestimate densities of forest ungulates. 4.  We expect these methods to provide an effective means to estimate animal density from camera trapping data and to be applicable in a variety of settings.
dc.relation.ispartofMethods in Ecology and Evolutionen
dc.rights© 2017, The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution © 2017 British Ecological Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at /
dc.subjectAnimal abundanceen
dc.subjectCamera trappingen
dc.subjectDistance samplingen
dc.subjectMaxwell's duikeren
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQA Mathematicsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleDistance sampling with camera trapsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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