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dc.contributor.authorWhiten, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorvan de Waal, Erica
dc.identifier.citationWhiten , A & van de Waal , E 2018 , ' The pervasive role of social learning in primate lifetime development ' , Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , vol. 72 , 80 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252827535
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 32e2e8f5-f3fb-4da0-aa6f-14897acffb3d
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85046481666
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000431706500002
dc.descriptionFunding: John Templeton Foundation.en
dc.description.abstractIn recent decades, an accelerating research effort has exploited a substantial diversity of methodologies to garner mounting evidence for social learning and culture in many species of primate. As in humans, the evidence suggests that the juvenile phases of non-human primates’ lives represent a period of particular intensity in adaptive learning from others, yet the relevant research remains scattered in the literature. Accordingly, we here offer what we believe to be the first substantial collation and review of this body of work and its implications for the lifetime behavioral ecology of primates. We divide our analysis into three main phases: a first phase of learning focused on primary attachment figures, typically the mother; a second phase of selective learning from a widening array of group members, including some with expertise that the primary figures may lack; and a third phase following later dispersal, when a migrant individual encounters new ecological and social circumstances about which the existing residents possess expertise that can be learned from. Collating a diversity of discoveries about this lifetime process leads us to conclude that social learning pervades primate ontogenetic development, importantly shaping locally adaptive knowledge and skills that span multiple aspects of the behavioral repertoire.
dc.relation.ispartofBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiologyen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.subjectSocial learningen
dc.subjectJuvenile primatesen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleThe pervasive role of social learning in primate lifetime developmenten
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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