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dc.contributor.authorKarl, Markus
dc.contributor.authorGlackin, James M. E.
dc.contributor.authorSchubert, Marcel
dc.contributor.authorKronenberg, Nils M.
dc.contributor.authorTurnbull, Graham A.
dc.contributor.authorSamuel, Ifor D. W.
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte C.
dc.identifier.citationKarl , M , Glackin , J M E , Schubert , M , Kronenberg , N M , Turnbull , G A , Samuel , I D W & Gather , M C 2018 , ' Flexible and ultra-lightweight polymer membrane lasers ' , Nature Communications , vol. 9 , 1525 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252523360
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 54788d5b-c2b7-435c-850e-85d2b0a304a0
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000431116800001
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000431116800001
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85046460504
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4857-5562/work/47136410
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8739-4852/work/44362054
dc.descriptionThe authors acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council (ERC StG ABLASE, 640012), the Scottish Funding Council (via SUPA) and EPSRC (EP/P030017/1). M.K. and J.M.E.G. acknowledge funding from the EPSRC DTG (EP/M506631/1 and EP/L505079/1). M.S. acknowledges funding from the European Commission for a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship (659213). I.D.W.S. acknowledges funding from a Royal Society Wolfson research merit award.en
dc.description.abstractOrganic semiconductors enable the fabrication of a range of lightweight and mechanically flexible optoelectronic devices. Most organic semiconductor lasers, however, have remained rigid until now, predominantly due to the need for a support substrate. Here, we use a simple fabrication process to make membrane-based, substrate-less and extremely thin (< 500 nm) organic distributed feedback lasers that offer ultralow-weight (m/A <0.5 gm−2) and excellent mechanical flexibility. We show operation of the lasers as free-standing membranes and transfer them onto other substrates, e.g. a banknote, where the unique lasing spectrum is readily read out and used as security feature. The pump thresholds and emission intensity of our membrane lasers are well within the permissible exposures for ocular safety and we demonstrate integration on contact lenses as wearable security tags.
dc.relation.ispartofNature Communicationsen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectOrganic semiconductor laseren
dc.subjectDistributed feedback laseren
dc.subjectDFB laseren
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectT Technologyen
dc.titleFlexible and ultra-lightweight polymer membrane lasersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Condensed Matter Physicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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