Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma
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Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives: The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods: Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24 maternal blood samples were obtained together with 34 placental samples and 108 foetal organs. PFASs and cotinine were assayed by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results: In foetal organs, the average concentrations of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDa), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were 0.6 ng/g, 0.2 ng/g, 0.1 ng/g, 0.1 ng/g, and 0.1 ng/g, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the exposure duration, defined as foetal age, and foetal to maternal ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions: PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however, with different efficiencies. The concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDA in foetal organs were much lower than the maternal concentrations. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the exposure duration and all of the evaluated PFASs was found. The health-compromising concentrations of these substances during foetal development are unknown.
Mamsen , L S , Jönsson , B A G , Lindh , C H , Olesen , R H , Larsen , A , Ernst , E , Kelsey , T W & Andersen , C Y 2017 , ' Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma ' Science of the Total Environment , vol. 596-597 , pp. 97-105 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.058
Science of the Total Environment
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.058
DescriptionWe thank The Research Pools of Rigshospitalet and the EU Interregional Project ReproUnion for funding this study.
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