Eyes on K2-3 : a system of three likely sub-Neptunes characterized with HARPS-N and HARPS
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Context. M-dwarf stars are promising targets for identifying and characterizing potentially habitable planets. K2-3 is a nearby (45pc), early-type M dwarf hosting three small transiting planets, the outermost of which orbits close to the inner edge of the stellar (optimistic) habitable zone. The K2-3 system is well suited for follow-up characterization studies aimed at determining accurate masses and bulk densities of the three planets. Aims. Using a total of 329 radial velocity measurements collected over 2.5 years with the HARPS-N and HARPS spectrographs and a proper treatment of the stellar activity signal, we aim to improve measurements of the masses and bulk densities of the K2-3 planets. We use our results to investigate the physical structure of the planets. Methods. We analyse radial velocity time series extracted with two independent pipelines by using Gaussian process regression. We adopt a quasi-periodic kernel to model the stellar magnetic activity jointly with the planetary signals. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the robustness of our mass measurements of K2-3 c and K2-3 d, and to explore how additional high-cadence radial velocity observations might improve them. Results. Despite the stellar activity component being the strongest signal present in the radial velocity time series, we are able to derive masses for both planet b (Mb = 6.6 ± 1.1 M⊕) and planet c (Mc=3.1(^+1.3_−1.2)M⊕). The Doppler signal due to K2-3 d remains undetected, likely because of its low amplitude compared to the radial velocity signal induced by the stellar activity. The closeness of the orbital period of K2-3 d to the stellar rotation period could also make the detection of the planetary signal complicated. Based on our ability to recover injected signals in simulated data, we tentatively estimate the mass of K2-3 d to be Md = 2.7(^+1.2_−0.8) M⊕. These mass measurements imply that the bulk densities and therefore the interior structures of the three planets may be similar. In particular, the planets may either have small H/He envelopes (<1%) or massive water layers (with a water content ≥50% of their total mass) on top of rocky cores. Placing further constraints on the bulk densities of K2-3 c and d will be difficult; in particular, even by adoptinga semester of intense, high-cadence radial velocity observations with HARPS-N and HARPS we would not have been able to detec tthe Doppler signal of K2-3 d.
Damasso , M , Bonomo , A S , Astudillo-Defru , N , Bonfils , X , Malavolta , L , Sozzetti , A , Lopez , E , Zeng , L , Haywood , R D , Irwin , J M , Mortier , A , Vanderburg , A , Maldonado , J , Lanza , A F , Affer , L , Almenara , J-M , Benatti , S , Biazzo , K , Bignamini , A , Borsa , F , Bouchy , F , Buchhave , L A , Cameron , A C , Carleo , I , Charbonneau , D , Claudi , R , Cosentino , R , Covino , E , Delfosse , X , Desidera , S , Di Fabrizio , L , Dressing , C , Esposito , M , Fares , R , Figueira , P , Fiorenzano , A F M , Forveille , T , Giacobbe , P , González-Álvarez , E , Gratton , R , Harutyunyan , A , Johnson , J A , Latham , D W , Leto , G , Lopez-Morales , M , Lovis , C , Maggio , A , Mancini , L , Masiero , S , Mayor , M , Micela , G , Molinari , E , Motalebi , F , Murgas , F , Nascimbeni , V , Pagano , I , Pepe , F , Phillips , D F , Piotto , G , Poretti , E , Rainer , M , Rice , K , Santos , N C , Sasselov , D , Scandariato , G , Ségransan , D , Smareglia , R , Udry , S , Watson , C & Wünsche , A 2018 , ' Eyes on K2-3 : a system of three likely sub-Neptunes characterized with HARPS-N and HARPS ' Astronomy & Astrophysics . DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201732459
Astronomy & Astrophysics
© 2018, ESO. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732459
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