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dc.contributor.authorSholes, Steven F.
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Megan L.
dc.contributor.authorClaire, Mark W.
dc.contributor.authorZahnle, Kevin J.
dc.contributor.authorCatling, David C.
dc.identifier.citationSholes , S F , Smith , M L , Claire , M W , Zahnle , K J & Catling , D C 2017 , ' Anoxic atmospheres on Mars driven by volcanism : implications for past environments and life ' Icarus , vol. 290 , pp. 46-62 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 249277858
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: bea30208-df34-490a-88e8-b80d02930914
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:C29CFA04F6B5BB79A6A467AB954F5477
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85014732555
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9518-089X/work/34103233
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by NNX10AN67G grant from NASA's Mars Fundamental Research Program awarded to DCC.en
dc.description.abstractMars today has no active volcanism and its atmosphere is oxidizing, dominated by the photochemistry of CO2 and H2O. Mars experienced widespread volcanism in the past and volcanic emissions should have included reducing gases, such as H2 and CO, as well as sulfur-bearing gases. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model, we consider whether plausible volcanic gas fluxes could have switched the redox-state of the past martian atmosphere to reducing conditions. In our model, the total quantity and proportions of volcanic gases depend on the water content, outgassing pressure, and oxygen fugacity of the source melt. We find that, with reasonable melt parameters, the past martian atmosphere (∼3.5 Gyr to present) could have easily reached reducing and anoxic conditions with modest levels of volcanism, >0.14 km3 yr−1, which are well within the range of estimates from thermal evolution models or photogeological studies. Counter-intuitively we also find that more reducing melts with lower oxygen fugacity require greater amounts of volcanism to switch a paleo-atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing. The reason is that sulfur is more stable in such melts and lower absolute fluxes of sulfur-bearing gases more than compensate for increases in the proportions of H2 and CO. These results imply that ancient Mars should have experienced periods with anoxic and reducing atmospheres even through the mid-Amazonian whenever volcanic outgassing was sustained at sufficient levels. Reducing anoxic conditions are potentially conducive to the synthesis of prebiotic organic compounds, such as amino acids, and are therefore relevant to the possibility of life on Mars. Also, anoxic reducing conditions should have influenced the type of minerals that were formed on the surface or deposited from the atmosphere. We suggest looking for elemental polysulfur (S8) as a signature of past reducing atmospheres. Finally, our models allow us to estimate the amount of volcanically sourced atmospheric sulfate deposited over Mars’ history, approximately ∼106-109 Tmol, with a spread depending on assumed outgassing rate history and magmatic source conditions.en
dc.rights© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectMars atmosphereen
dc.subjectAtmosphere chemistryen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.titleAnoxic atmospheres on Mars driven by volcanism : implications for past environments and lifeen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Earth and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Isotope Geochemistryen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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