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dc.contributor.authorTreweek, Shaun
dc.contributor.authorBevan, Simon
dc.contributor.authorBower, Peter
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, Marion
dc.contributor.authorChristie, Jacquie
dc.contributor.authorClarke, Mike
dc.contributor.authorCollett, Clive
dc.contributor.authorCotton, Seonaidh
dc.contributor.authorDevane, Declan
dc.contributor.authorEl Feky, Adel
dc.contributor.authorFlemyng, Ella
dc.contributor.authorGalvin, Sandra
dc.contributor.authorGardner, Heidi
dc.contributor.authorGillies, Katie
dc.contributor.authorJansen, Jan
dc.contributor.authorLittleford, Roberta
dc.contributor.authorParker, Adwoa
dc.contributor.authorRamsay, Craig
dc.contributor.authorRestrup, Lynne
dc.contributor.authorSullivan, Frank
dc.contributor.authorTorgerson, David
dc.contributor.authorTremain, Liz
dc.contributor.authorWestmore, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorWilliamson, Paula R
dc.identifier.citationTreweek , S , Bevan , S , Bower , P , Campbell , M , Christie , J , Clarke , M , Collett , C , Cotton , S , Devane , D , El Feky , A , Flemyng , E , Galvin , S , Gardner , H , Gillies , K , Jansen , J , Littleford , R , Parker , A , Ramsay , C , Restrup , L , Sullivan , F , Torgerson , D , Tremain , L , Westmore , M & Williamson , P R 2018 , ' Trial Forge Guidance 1 : what is a Study Within A Trial (SWAT)? ' , Trials , vol. 19 , 139 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252393749
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: cad9b7b0-5cb1-4291-8eae-1b1fb3b3c3b3
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 29475444
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85042444313
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000426512500001
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-6623-4964/work/42276862
dc.descriptionThe work described here was funded in part by the UK Network of MRC Hubs for Trials Methodology Research and the Irish Trials Methodology Research Network.en
dc.description.abstractRandomised trials are a central component of all evidence-informed health care systems and the evidence coming from them helps to support health care users, health professionals and others to make more informed decisions about treatment. The evidence available to trialists to support decisions on design, conduct and reporting of randomised trials is, however, sparse. Trial Forge is an initiative that aims to increase the evidence base for trial decision-making and in doing so, to improve trial efficiency. One way to fill gaps in evidence is to run Studies Within A Trial, or SWATs. This guidance document provides a brief definition of SWATs, an explanation of why they are important and some practical 'top tips' that come from existing experience of doing SWATs. We hope the guidance will be useful to trialists, methodologists, funders, approvals agencies and others in making clear what a SWAT is, as well as what is involved in doing one.
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2018. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleTrial Forge Guidance 1 : what is a Study Within A Trial (SWAT)?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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