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dc.contributor.authorRuxton, Graeme D.
dc.contributor.authorJohnsen, Sönke
dc.identifier.citationRuxton , G D & Johnsen , S 2016 , ' The effect of aggregation on visibility in open water ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 283 , no. 1839 , 20161463 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 246755698
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 19c188d2-a475-49c9-8f1b-c0d90b697489
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84989184635
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 27655767
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8943-6609/work/60427503
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000386489200013
dc.description.abstractAggregation is a common life-history trait in open-water taxa. Qualitative understanding of how aggregation by prey influences their encounter rates with predators is critical for understanding pelagic predator-prey interactions and trophic webs.We extend a recently developed theory on underwater visibility to predict the consequences of grouping in open-water species in terms of increased visual detection of groups by predators. Our model suggests that enhanced visibility will be relatively modest, with maximum detection distance typically only doubling for a 100-fold increase in the number of prey in a group. This result suggests that although larger groups are more easily detected, this cost to aggregation will in many cases be dominated by benefits, especially through risk dilution in situations where predators cannot consume all members of a discovered group. This, in turn, helps to explain the ubiquity of grouping across a great variety of open-water taxa.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesen
dc.rights© 2016, the Author(s). This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectAnti-predator defenceen
dc.subjectAttack abatementen
dc.subjectDilution of risken
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectImmunology and Microbiology(all)en
dc.subjectBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)en
dc.subjectEnvironmental Science(all)en
dc.subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciences(all)en
dc.titleThe effect of aggregation on visibility in open wateren
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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