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dc.contributor.authorKafle, Prajwal R.
dc.contributor.authorSharma, Sanjib
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Geraint F.
dc.contributor.authorRobotham, Aaron S. G.
dc.contributor.authorDriver, Simon P.
dc.identifier.citationKafle , P R , Sharma , S , Lewis , G F , Robotham , A S G & Driver , S P 2018 , ' The need for speed : escape velocity and dynamical mass measurements of the Andromeda galaxy ' , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252091426
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 90fd2df6-006b-4923-b9a3-2acb9430d8e1
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85044719468
dc.description.abstractOur nearest large cosmological neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), is a dynamical system, and an accurate measurement of its total mass is central to our understanding of its assembly history, the life-cycles of its satellite galaxies, and its role in shaping the Local Group environment. Here, we apply a novel approach to determine the dynamical mass of M31 using high velocity Planetary Nebulae (PNe), establishing a hierarchical Bayesian model united with a scheme to capture potential outliers and marginalize over tracers unknown distances. With this, we derive the escape velocity run of M31 as a function of galacto-centric distance, with both parametric and non-parametric approaches. We determine the escape velocity of M31 to be 470 ± 40  km s−1 at a galacto-centric distance of 15  kpc, and also, derive the total potential of M31, estimating the virial mass and radius of the galaxy to be 0.8±0.1×1012M⊙ and 240 ± 10  kpc, respectively. Our M31 mass is on the low-side of the measured range, this supports the lower expected mass of the M31-Milky Way system from the timing and momentum arguments, satisfying the H i constraint on circular velocity between 10 ≲ R/ kpc < 35, and agreeing with the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation. To place these results in a broader context, we compare them to the key predictions of the ΛCDM cosmological paradigm, including the stellar-mass–halo-mass and the dark matter halo concentration–virial mass correlation, and finding it to be an outlier to this relation.
dc.relation.ispartofMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Societyen
dc.rights© 2018, the Author(s). This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.subjectStars: individual: planetary nebulaeen
dc.subjectGalaxies: individual: M31en
dc.subjectGalaxies: kinematics and dynamicsen
dc.subjectMethods: statisticalen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleThe need for speed : escape velocity and dynamical mass measurements of the Andromeda galaxyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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