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dc.contributor.authorIsojunno, S.
dc.contributor.authorSadykova, D.
dc.contributor.authorDeRuiter, S.
dc.contributor.authorCuré, C.
dc.contributor.authorVisser, F.
dc.contributor.authorThomas, L.
dc.contributor.authorMiller, P. J. O.
dc.contributor.authorHarris, C. M.
dc.identifier.citationIsojunno , S , Sadykova , D , DeRuiter , S , Curé , C , Visser , F , Thomas , L , Miller , P J O & Harris , C M 2017 , ' Individual, ecological, and anthropogenic influences on activity budgets of long-finned pilot whales ' , Ecosphere , vol. 8 , no. 12 , e02044 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 251763383
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5e8b030b-62dc-4851-b246-564d2803b000
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85039729632
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2212-2135/work/40266938
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7436-067X/work/40266945
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000423423200033
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9198-2414/work/60887673
dc.descriptionThe authors would like to thank sponsors, NL Ministry of Defence, NOR Ministry of Defence, U.S. Office of Naval Research (N00014-08-1-0984, N00014-10-1-0355, N00014-14-1-0390), FR Ministry of Defence (DGA; public market no. 15860052), World Wildlife Fund Norway (9E0682), and French Total Foundation and Bleustein-Blanchet Foundation. The statistical development work was supported by a separate grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research (N00014-12-1-0204), under the project entitled Multi-study OCean acoustics Human effects Analysis (MOCHA).en
dc.description.abstractTime allocation to different activities and habitats enables individuals to modulate their perceived risks and access to resources, and can reveal important trade-offs between fitness-enhancing activities (e.g., feeding vs. social behavior). Species with long reproductive cycles and high parental investment, such as marine mammals, rely on such behavioral plasticity to cope with rapid environmental change, including anthropogenic stressors. We quantified activity budgets of free-ranging long-finned pilot whales in order to assess individual time trade-offs between foraging and other behaviors in different individual and ecological contexts, and during experimental sound exposures. The experiments included 1-2 and 6-7 kHz naval sonar exposures (a potential anthropogenic stressor), playback of killer whale (a potential predator/competitor) vocalizations, and negative controls. We combined multiple time series data from digital acoustic recording tags (DTAG) as well as group-level social behavior data from visual observations of tagged whales at the surface. The data were classified into near-surface behaviors and dive types (using a hidden Markov model for dive transitions) and aggregated into time budgets. On average, individuals (N=19) spent most of their time (69%) resting and transiting near surface, 21% in shallow dives (depth <40m), and only 10% of their time in deep foraging dives, of which 65% reached a depth 10m from the sea bottom. Individuals in the largest of three body size classes or accompanied by calves tended to spend more time foraging than others. Simultaneous tagging of pairs of individuals showed that up to 50% of the activity budget was synchronized between conspecifics with decreased synchrony during foraging periods. Individuals spent less time foraging when forming larger non-vocal aggregations of individuals in late afternoons, and more time foraging when in the mid-range of water depths (300-400m) available in the study area (50-700m). Individuals reduced foraging time by 83% (29-96%) during their first exposure to sonar, but not during killer whale sound playbacks. A relative increase in foraging during repeat sonar exposures indicated habituation or change in response tactic. We discuss the possible adaptive value of these trade-offs in time allocation to reduce individual conflict while maintaining benefits of group living.
dc.rights© 2017 Isojunno et al. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectAnthropogenic noiseen
dc.subjectActivity synchronyen
dc.subjectBenthic habitaten
dc.subjectDeep diving mammalen
dc.subjectGlobicephala melasen
dc.subjectHidden Markov modelen
dc.subjectNaval sonaren
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleIndividual, ecological, and anthropogenic influences on activity budgets of long-finned pilot whalesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.grantnumberN00014 08 1 0984en

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