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dc.contributor.authorSivle, Lise D.
dc.contributor.authorWensveen, Paulus Jacobus
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter
dc.contributor.authorLam, Frans-Peter A.
dc.contributor.authorVisser, Fleur
dc.contributor.authorCure, Charlotte
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Catriona M
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.identifier.citationSivle , L D , Wensveen , P J , Kvadsheim , P , Lam , F-P A , Visser , F , Cure , C , Harris , C M , Tyack , P L & Miller , P 2016 , ' Naval sonar disrupts foraging behaviour in humpback whales ' , Marine Ecology Progress Series , vol. 562 , pp. 211-220 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 230395866
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c9f7ddcf-1414-404b-b2ba-982ca3acfad9
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85007575663
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000394183600016
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9198-2414/work/60887675
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887820
dc.description.abstractModern long-range naval sonars are a potential disturbance for marine mammals and can cause disruption of feeding in cetaceans. We examined the lunge-feeding behaviour of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae before, during and after controlled exposure experiments with naval sonar by use of acoustic and motion sensor archival tags attached to each animal. Lunge-feeding by humpback whales entails a strong acceleration to increase speed before engulfing a large volume of prey-laden water, which can be identified by an acoustic signature characterized by a few seconds of high-level flow-noise followed by a rapid reduction, coinciding with a peak in animal acceleration. Over 2 successive seasons, 13 humpback whales were tagged. All were subject to a no-sonar control exposure, and 12 whales were exposed to 2 consecutive sonar exposure sessions, with 1 h between sessions. The first sonar session resulted in an average 68% reduction in lunge rate during exposure compared to pre-exposure, and this reduction was significantly greater than any changes observed during the no-sonar control. During the second sonar session, reduction in lunge rate was 66% during sonar exposure compared to the pre-exposure level, but was not significant compared to the no-sonar control, likely due to a larger inter-individual variability because some individuals appeared to have habituated whereas others had not. Our results indicate that naval sonars operating near humpback whale feeding grounds may lead to reduced foraging and negative impacts on energy balance.
dc.relation.ispartofMarine Ecology Progress Seriesen
dc.rights© 2016, Inter-Research. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at /
dc.subjectHumpback whaleen
dc.subjectMegaptera novaeangliaeen
dc.subjectNaval sonaren
dc.subjectBehavioral responseen
dc.subjectLung feedingen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleNaval sonar disrupts foraging behaviour in humpback whalesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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