Boron isotopes in foraminifera : systematics, biomineralisation, and CO2 reconstruction
MetadataShow full item record
The boron isotope composition of foraminifera provides a powerful tracer for CO2 change over geological time. This proxy is based on the equilibrium of boron and its isotopes in seawater, which is a function of pH. However while the chemical principles underlying this proxy are well understood, its reliability has previously been questioned, due to the difficulty of boron isotope (δ11B) analysis on foraminferal samples and questions regarding calibrations between δ11B and pH. This chapter reviews the current state of the δ11B-pH proxy in foraminfera, including the pioneering studies that established this proxy’s potential, and the recent work that has improved understanding of boron isotope systematics in foraminifera and applied this tracer to the geological record. The theoretical background of the δ11B-pH proxy is introduced, including an accurate formulation of the boron isotope mass balance equations. Sample preparation and analysis procedures are then reviewed, with discussion of sample cleaning, the potential influence of diagenesis, and the strengths and weaknesses of boron purification by column chromatography versus microsublimation, and analysis by NTIMS versus MC-ICPMS. The systematics of boron isotopes in foraminifera are discussed in detail, including results from benthic and planktic taxa, and models of boron incorporation, fractionation, and biomineralisation. Benthic taxa from the deep ocean have δ11B within error of borate ion at seawater pH. This is most easily explained by simple incorporation of borate ion at the pH of seawater. Planktic foraminifera have δ11B close to borate ion, but with minor offsets. These may be driven by physiological influences on the foraminiferal microenvironment; a novel explanation is also suggested for the reduced δ11B-pH sensitivities observed in culture, based on variable calcification rates. Biomineralisation influences on boron isotopes are then explored, addressing the apparently contradictory observations that foraminifera manipulate pH during chamber formation yet their δ11B appears to record the pH of ambient seawater. Potential solutions include the influences of magnesium-removal and carbon concentration, and the possibility that pH elevation is most pronounced during initial chamber formation under favourable environmental conditions. The steps required to reconstruct pH and pCO2 from δ11B are then reviewed, including the influence of seawater chemistry on boron equilibrium, the evolution of seawater δ11B, and the influence of second carbonate system parameters on δ11B-based reconstructions of pCO2. Applications of foraminiferal δ11B to the geological record are highlighted, including studies that trace CO2 storage and release during recent ice ages, and reconstructions of pCO2 over the Cenozoic. Relevant computer codes and data associated with this article are made available online.
Rae , J W B 2018 , Boron isotopes in foraminifera : systematics, biomineralisation, and CO 2 reconstruction . in H Marschall & G Foster (eds) , Boron Isotopes : The Fifth Element . Advances in Isotope Geochemistry , Springer , Cham , pp. 107-143 . DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-64666-4_5
© The Author(s) 2018. This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
DescriptionFunding: Fellowship from University of St Andrews, $100 (pending) from Richard Zeebe, UK NERC grants NE/N003861/1 and NE/N011716/1.
Items in the St Andrews Research Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.