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dc.contributor.authorBarratt, Brendan
dc.contributor.authorFlavell, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorBennett, Simon
dc.contributor.authorCuickshank, Alice
dc.contributor.authorManowski, Alex
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Julie
dc.contributor.authorBuckley, John
dc.identifier.citationBarratt , B , Flavell , J , Bennett , S , Cuickshank , A , Manowski , A , Harris , J & Buckley , J 2017 , ' Vision and visual history in elite/near-elite level cricketers and rugby-league players ' , Sports Medicine - Open , vol. 3 , no. 39 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 251494587
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: e312cc8f-13ff-4a82-8a2f-35cc74713fba
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85046706770
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3497-4503/work/46085845
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000514830000038
dc.descriptionThis study was funded by grants BB/J018163/1, BB/J016365/1, and BB/J018872/1 from the UK’s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).en
dc.description.abstractBackground: The importance of optimal and/or superior vision for participation in high-level sport remains the subject of considerable clinical research interest. Here we examine the vision and visual history of elite/near-elite cricketers and rugby-league players.Methods: Stereoacuity (TNO), colour vision, and distance (with/without pinhole) and near visual acuity (VA) were measured in two cricket squads (elite/international-level, female, n=16; near-elite, male, n=23) and one professional rugby-league squad (male, n=20). Refractive error was determined, and details of any correction worn and visual history were recorded.Results: Overall, 63% had their last eye-examination within 2 years. However, some had not had an eye examination for 5 years, or had never had one (near-elite-cricketers: 30%; rugby-league players: 15%; elite-cricketers: 6%). Comparing our results for all participants to published data for young, optimally-corrected, non-sporting adults, distance VA was ~1 line of letters worse than expected. Adopting α=0.01, the deficit in distance-VA deficit was significant, but only for elite-cricketers (p<0.001) (near-elite cricketers, p=0.02; rugby-league players, p=0.03). Near-VA did not differ between subgroups or relative to published norms for young adults (p>0.02 for all comparisons). On average, stereoacuity was better than in young adults, but only in elite-cricketers (p<0.001; p=0.03, near-elite-cricketers; p=0.47, rugby-league -players). On-field visual issues were present in 27% of participants, and mostly (in 75% of cases) comprised uncorrected ametropia. Some cricketers (near-elite: 17.4%; elite: 38%) wore refractive correction during play but no rugby-league player did. Some individuals with prescribed correction choose not to wear it when playing.Conclusion: Aside from near stereoacuity in elite-cricketers, these basic visual abilities were not better than equivalent, published data for optimally-corrected adults. 20-25% exhibited sub-optimal vision, suggesting that the clearest possible vision might not be critical for participation at the highest levels in the sports of cricket or rugby-league. Although vision could be improved in a sizeable proportion of our sample, the impact of correcting these, mostly subtle, refractive anomalies on playing performance is unknown.
dc.relation.ispartofSports Medicine - Openen
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.subjectElite sportsen
dc.subjectrefractive erroren
dc.subjectRugby leagueen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titleVision and visual history in elite/near-elite level cricketers and rugby-league playersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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