Spatio-temporal variation in click production rates of beaked whales : implications for passive acoustic density estimation
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Passive acoustic monitoring has become an increasingly prevalent tool for estimating density of marine mammals, such as beaked whales, which vocalize often but are difficult to survey visually. Counts of acoustic cues (e.g., vocalizations), when corrected for detection probability, can be translated into animal density estimates by applying an individual cue production rate multiplier. It is essential to understand variation in these rates to avoid biased estimates. The most direct way to measure cue production rate is with animal-mounted acoustic recorders. This study utilized data from sound recording tags deployed on Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris, 19 deployments) and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris, 16 deployments) beaked whales, in two locations per species, to explore spatial and temporal variation in click production rates. No spatial or temporal variation was detected within the average click production rate of Blainville's beaked whales when calculated over dive cycles (including silent periods between dives); however, spatial variation was detected when averaged only over vocal periods. Cuvier's beaked whales exhibited significant spatial and temporal variation in click production rates within vocal periods and when silent periods were included. This evidence of variation emphasizes the need to utilize appropriate cue production rates when estimating density from passive acoustic data.
Warren , V E , Marques , T A , Harris , D , Thomas , L , Tyack , P L , Aguilar de Soto , N , Hickmott , L S & Johnson , M P 2017 , ' Spatio-temporal variation in click production rates of beaked whales : implications for passive acoustic density estimation ' Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , vol. 141 , no. 3 , pp. 1962-1974 . https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4978439
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
© 2017, Acoustical Society of America. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at asa.scitation.org / https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4978439
DescriptionT.A.M. was funded under Grant No. N000141010382 from the Office of Naval Research (LATTE project) and thanks support by CEAUL (funded by FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal, through the project UID/MAT/00006/2013). M.P.J. was funded by a Marie Curie Career Integration Grant and M.P.J. and P.L.T. were funded by MASTS (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland, a research pooling initiative funded by the Scottish Funding Council under grant HR09011 and contributing institutions). L.S.H. thanks the BRS Bahamas team that helped collect the Bahamas data, and A. Bocconcelli. D.H. and L.T. were funded by the Office of Naval Research (Award No. N00014-14-1-0394). N.A.S. was funded by an EU-Horizon 2020 Marie Slodowska Curie fellowship (project ECOSOUND). DTAG data in the Canary Islands were collected with funds from the U.S. Office of Naval Research and Fundación Biodiversidad (EU project LIFE INDEMARES) with permit from the Canary Islands and Spanish governments.
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