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dc.contributor.authorBannon, Ross
dc.contributor.authorParihar, Shivani
dc.contributor.authorSkarparis, Yiannis
dc.contributor.authorVarsou, Ourania
dc.contributor.authorCezayirli, Enis
dc.identifier.citationBannon , R , Parihar , S , Skarparis , Y , Varsou , O & Cezayirli , E 2018 , ' 3D printing the pterygopalatine fossa : a negative space model of a complex structure ' , Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy , vol. 40 , no. 2 , pp. 185-191 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 250951251
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 0883e522-ca44-4e04-b27c-7cf5b20d85fb
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85028605110
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000426552000008
dc.description.abstractPurpose : The pterygopalatine fossa is one of the most complex anatomical regions to understand. It is poorly visualized in cadaveric dissection and most textbooks rely on schematic depictions. We describe our approach to creating a low-cost, 3D model of the pterygopalatine fossa, including its associated canals and foramina, using an affordable “desktop” 3D printer. Methods:  We used open source software to create a volume render of the pterygopalatine fossa from axial slices of a head computerised tomography scan. These data were then exported to a 3D printer to produce an anatomically accurate model. Results:  The resulting ‘negative space’ model of the pterygopalatine fossa provides a useful and innovative aid for understanding the complex anatomical relationships of the pterygopalatine fossa. Conclusion: This model was designed primarily for medical students; however, it will also be of interest to postgraduates in ENT, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and radiology. The technical process described may be replicated by other departments wishing to develop their own anatomical models whilst incurring minimal costs.
dc.relation.ispartofSurgical and Radiologic Anatomyen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.subjectPterygopalatine fossaen
dc.subject3D printingen
dc.subjectAnatomy educationen
dc.subjectModel and simulationen
dc.subject3D imaging techniquesen
dc.subjectComputed tomographyen
dc.subjectLB2300 Higher Educationen
dc.subjectQM Human anatomyen
dc.subjectRD Surgeryen
dc.subjectT Technologyen
dc.title3D printing the pterygopalatine fossa : a negative space model of a complex structureen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Education Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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