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dc.contributor.authorDe Meyer, Sara
dc.contributor.authorKågesten, Anna
dc.contributor.authorMmari, Kristin
dc.contributor.authorMcEachran, Juliet
dc.contributor.authorChilet-Rosell, Elisa
dc.contributor.authorKabiru, Caroline W.
dc.contributor.authorMaina, Beatrice
dc.contributor.authorJerves, Elena M.
dc.contributor.authorCurrie, Candace
dc.contributor.authorMichielsen, Kristien
dc.identifier.citationDe Meyer , S , Kågesten , A , Mmari , K , McEachran , J , Chilet-Rosell , E , Kabiru , C W , Maina , B , Jerves , E M , Currie , C & Michielsen , K 2017 , ' “Boys should have the courage to ask a girl out” : gender norms in early adolescent romantic relationships ' , Journal of Adolescent Health , vol. 61 , no. 4, Supplement , pp. S42-S47 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 251060976
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: fc368988-6d51-4138-a253-584171a6587a
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:15B91B0642EBD62793BD35731EC8682F
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85029184161
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000415372400010
dc.descriptionThis work was funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the World Health Organization, the Fund for scientific research-Flanders, the Flemish Ministry of Innovation, Public Investment, Media and Poverty Reduction, SENESCYT—The Institute of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation Ecuador and by the Chief Scientist Office (Scotland).en
dc.description.abstractPurpose: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. Methods:  Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11–13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas.ti, focusing on how EAs experience and perceive gender norms in romantic relationships. Results: Across the five sites, only a few respondents described having been in love, the majority of whom were boys. Findings indicate that stereotypical gender norms about romantic relationships prevail across these cultural settings, depicting boys as romantically/sexually active and dominant, and girls as innocent with less (romantic) agency. In spite of the similarities, Nairobi was unique in that respondents referred to how sexual behavior and violence can occur within EA relationships. In all countries, heterosexuality was perceived to be the norm. Nevertheless, there were examples of EAs accepting homosexuality and expressing supportive attitudes toward equality between the sexes. Conclusions: While EAs across five different cultural settings seem to endorse stereotypical gender norms in romantic relationships, a few stories also illustrate more gender-equal attitudes. As stereotypical gender norms have a demonstrated negative effect on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and well-being, additional research is needed to understand which factors—at the interpersonal and structural level—contribute to the construction of these norms among EAs.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Adolescent Healthen
dc.rights© 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectEarly adolescenceen
dc.subjectGender normsen
dc.subjectRomantic relationshipsen
dc.subjectAdolescent sexual and reproductive healthen
dc.subjectInternational researchen
dc.subjectRJ Pediatricsen
dc.subjectH Social Sciences (General)en
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.title“Boys should have the courage to ask a girl out” : gender norms in early adolescent romantic relationshipsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.WHO Collaborating Centre for International Child & Adolescent Health Policyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Child and Adolescent Health Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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