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dc.contributor.authorZollinger, Sue Anne
dc.contributor.authorSlater, Peter J. B.
dc.contributor.authorNemeth, Erwin
dc.contributor.authorBrumm, Henrich
dc.identifier.citationZollinger , S A , Slater , P J B , Nemeth , E & Brumm , H 2017 , ' Higher songs of city birds may not be an individual response to noise ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 284 , no. 1860 , 20170602 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 250732830
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 96af90e4-a7ef-45e7-a5b7-6a8a661f2562
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85027251914
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000407805000008
dc.descriptionFunding was provided by the BBSRC (award BB/E003494/1) to P.J.B.S. and H.B. and the DFG (awards BR 2309/7-1, BR 2309/8-1) to H.B. Data are archived at the Dryad Digital Repository (
dc.description.abstractIt has been observed in many songbird species that populations in noisy urban areas sing with a higher minimum frequency than do matched populations in quieter, less developed areas. However, why and how this divergence occurs is not yet understood. We experimentally tested whether chronic noise exposure during vocal learning results in songs with higher minimum frequencies in great tits (Parus major), the first species for which a correlation between anthropogenic noise and song frequency was observed. We also tested vocal plasticity of adult great tits in response to changing background noise levels by measuring song frequency and amplitude as we changed noise conditions. We show that noise exposure during ontogeny did not result in songs with higher minimum frequencies. In addition, we found that adult birds did not make any frequency or song usage adjustments when their background noise conditions were changed after song crystallization. These results challenge the common view of vocal adjustments by city birds, as they suggest that either noise itself is not the causal force driving the divergence of song frequency between urban and forest populations, or that noise induces population-wide changes over a time scale of several generations rather than causing changes in individual behaviour.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesen
dc.rights© 2017, the Author(s). This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at /
dc.subjectVocal plasticityen
dc.subjectAnthropogenic noiseen
dc.subjectBird songen
dc.subjectAnimal communicationen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleHigher songs of city birds may not be an individual response to noiseen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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