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dc.contributor.authorYoungblood, Allison
dc.contributor.authorFrance, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorLoyd, R. O. Parke
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorMason, James P.
dc.contributor.authorSchneider, P. Christian
dc.contributor.authorTilley, Matt A.
dc.contributor.authorBerta-Thompson, Zachory K.
dc.contributor.authorBuccino, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorFroning, Cynthia S.
dc.contributor.authorHawley, Suzanne L.
dc.contributor.authorLinsky, Jeffrey
dc.contributor.authorMauas, Pablo J. D.
dc.contributor.authorRedfield, Seth
dc.contributor.authorKowalski, Adam
dc.contributor.authorMiguel, Yamila
dc.contributor.authorNewton, Elisabeth R.
dc.contributor.authorRugheimer, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorSegura, Antigona
dc.contributor.authorRoberge, Aki
dc.contributor.authorVieytes, Mariela
dc.identifier.citationYoungblood , A , France , K , Loyd , R O P , Brown , A , Mason , J P , Schneider , P C , Tilley , M A , Berta-Thompson , Z K , Buccino , A , Froning , C S , Hawley , S L , Linsky , J , Mauas , P J D , Redfield , S , Kowalski , A , Miguel , Y , Newton , E R , Rugheimer , S , Segura , A , Roberge , A & Vieytes , M 2017 , ' The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling relations for ultraviolet, Ca II K, and energetic particle fluxes from M dwarfs ' , Astrophysical Journal , vol. 843 , no. 1 , 31 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 250366418
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 696b9a60-8eba-4b15-87ea-adcc17d8249f
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85021778567
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1620-7658/work/34574003
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000404347000031
dc.description.abstractCharacterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet's potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10−3 W m−2 and possible proton fluxes ~102–103 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journalen
dc.rights© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at:
dc.subjectStars: chromospheresen
dc.subjectStars: low-massen
dc.subjectSun: flaresen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleThe MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. : Scaling relations for ultraviolet, Ca II K, and energetic particle fluxes from M dwarfsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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