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dc.contributor.authorStephens, William E.
dc.identifier.citationStephens , W E 2017 , ' Comparing the cancer potencies of emissions from vapourised nicotine products including e-cigarettes with those of tobacco smoke ' , Tobacco Control , vol. 21 , no. 1 , pp. 10-17 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 250713926
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ebab24ee-205b-4dce-87f0-6729b5be2bb9
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 28778971
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 28778971
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85041702634
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-0884-8722/work/65013901
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000418198900004
dc.description© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.en
dc.description.abstractBackground Quantifying relative harm caused by inhaling the aerosol emissions of vapourised nicotine products compared with smoking combustible tobacco is an important issue for public health. Methods The cancer potencies of various nicotine-delivering aerosols are modelled using published chemical analyses of emissions and their associated inhalation unit risks. Potencies are compared using a conversion procedure for expressing smoke and e-cigarette vapours in common units. Lifetime cancer risks are calculated from potencies using daily consumption estimates. Results The aerosols form a spectrum of cancer potencies spanning five orders of magnitude from uncontaminated air to tobacco smoke. E-cigarette emissions span most of this range with the preponderance of products having potencies<1% of tobacco smoke and falling within two orders of magnitude of a medicinal nicotine inhaler; however, a small minority have much higher potencies. These high-risk results tend to be associated with high levels of carbonyls generated when excessive power is delivered to the atomiser coil. Samples of a prototype heat-not-burn device have lower cancer potencies than tobacco smoke by at least one order of magnitude, but higher potencies than most e-cigarettes. Mean lifetime risks decline in the sequence: combustible cigarettes >> heat-not-burn >> e-cigarettes (normal power)≥nicotine inhaler. Conclusions Optimal combinations of device settings, liquid formulation and vaping behaviour normally result in e-cigarette emissions with much less carcinogenic potency than tobacco smoke, notwithstanding there are circumstances in which the cancer risks of e-cigarette emissions can escalate, sometimes substantially. These circumstances are usually avoidable when the causes are known.
dc.relation.ispartofTobacco Controlen
dc.rights© Article author(s) 2017. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectRA Public aspects of medicineen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectRC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)en
dc.titleComparing the cancer potencies of emissions from vapourised nicotine products including e-cigarettes with those of tobacco smokeen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Geography and Geosciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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