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dc.contributor.authorKarlõševa, Aljona
dc.contributor.authorNõmmann, Sulev
dc.contributor.authorNõmmann, Tea
dc.contributor.authorUrbel-Piirsalu, Evelin
dc.contributor.authorBudziński, Wiktor
dc.contributor.authorCzajkowski, Mikołaj
dc.contributor.authorHanley, Nicholas David
dc.identifier.citationKarlõševa , A , Nõmmann , S , Nõmmann , T , Urbel-Piirsalu , E , Budziński , W , Czajkowski , M & Hanley , N D 2016 , ' Marine trade-offs: comparing the benefits of off-shore wind farms and marine protected areas ' , Energy Economics , vol. 55 , pp. 127-134 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 240593269
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3d67439e-a7bb-4a73-93e5-393e28f17b92
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84958957549
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000375358100012
dc.description.abstractThe drive to increase renewable electricity production in many parts of Europe has led to an increasing concentration of new wind energy sites at sea. This results in a range of environmental impacts which should be taken into account in a benefit–cost analysis of such proposals. In this paper, we use choice modelling to investigate the relative gains and losses from siting new windfarms off the coast of Estonia, relative to the option of creating a new marine protected area. We find that, while respondents are generally opposed to converting marine shoals to conventional wind farms and prefer the establishment of marine protected areas instead, benefits from constructing ‘environmentally-friendly’ wind farms – an alternative program which is also considered by the government – are not statistically different with respect to consumers' welfare to those associated with creating a new marine protected area. Methodologically, the paper makes a contribution by showing the ability of the latent class mixed logit model to represent both within-and between-class preference heterogeneity, and thus its power to provide a more sophisticated representation of preference heterogeneity than stand-alone latent class or mixed logit approaches. The paper is also presents the first use of the latent class mixed logit model in willingness-to-pay space for environmental goods.
dc.relation.ispartofEnergy Economicsen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at:
dc.subjectDiscrete choice experimenten
dc.subjectOff-shore wind energyen
dc.subjectMarine protected areasen
dc.subjectWillingness to pay spaceen
dc.subjectLatent class mixed logiten
dc.subjectRenewable energyen
dc.subjectHB Economic Theoryen
dc.titleMarine trade-offs: comparing the benefits of off-shore wind farms and marine protected areasen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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