Targeting pattern recognition receptors (PRR) for vaccine adjuvantation : from synthetic PRR agonists to the potential of Defective Interfering Particles (DIPs) of viruses
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Modern vaccinology has increasingly focused on non-living vaccines, which are more stable than live-attenuated vaccines but often show limited immunogenicity. Immunostimulatory substances, known as adjuvants, are traditionally used to increase the magnitude of protective adaptive immunity in response to a pathogen-associated antigen. Recently developed adjuvants often include substances that stimulate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), essential components of innate immunity required for the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Nearly all PRRs are potential targets for adjuvants. Given the recent success of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in vaccine development, molecules with similar, but additional, immunostimulatory activity, such as defective interfering particles (DIPs) of viruses, represent attractive candidates for vaccine adjuvants. This review outlines some of the recent advances in vaccine development related to the use of TLR agonists, summarizes the current knowledge regarding DIP immunogenicity, and discusses the potential applications of DIPs in vaccine adjuvantation.
Vasou , A , Sultanoglu , N , Goodbourn , S , Randall , R E & Kostrikis , L G 2017 , ' Targeting pattern recognition receptors (PRR) for vaccine adjuvantation : from synthetic PRR agonists to the potential of Defective Interfering Particles (DIPs) of viruses ' Viruses , vol 9 , no. 7 , 186 . DOI: 10.3390/v9070186
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
This work was supported by financial support from the University of Cyprus (Grant 8037P-3/311-25020) awarded to L.G.K, and Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Awards to S.G. and R.R. (101788/Z/13/Z, 101792/Z/13/Z).
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