Palladium-based ferroelectrics and multiferroics : theory and experiment
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Palladium normally does not easily substitute for Ti or Zr in perovskite oxides. Moreover, Pd is not normally magnetic (but becomes ferromagnetic under applied uniaxial stress or electric fields). Despite these two great obstacles, we have succeeded in fabricating lead zirconate titanate with 30% Pd substitution. For 20:80 Zr:Ti the ceramics are generally single-phase perovskite (>99%), but sometimes exhibit 1% PbPdO2, which is magnetic below T=90K. The resulting material is multiferroic (ferroelectric-ferromagnet) at room temperature. The processing is slightly unusual (>8 hrs in high-energy ball-milling in Zr balls), and the density functional theory provided shows that it occurs because of Pd+4 in the oversized Pb+2 site; if all Pd+4 were to go into the Ti+4 perovskite B-site, no magnetism would result.
Kumari , S , Pradhan , D K , Ortega , N , Pradhan , K , DeVreugd , C , Srinivasan , G , Kumar , A , Paudel , T R , Tsymbal , E Y , Bumstead , A , Scott , J F & Katiyar , R S 2017 , ' Palladium-based ferroelectrics and multiferroics : theory and experiment ' Physical Review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics , vol 95 , no. 21 , 214109 . DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.214109
Physical Review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics
© 2017, American Physical Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at journals.aps.org / https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.214109
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