Improved power for TB phase IIa trials using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach compared with commonly used analysis methods
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Background : The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process. Objectives : To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials. Methods : Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model. cfu data were simulated over 14 days for patients taking once-daily monotherapy at four different doses per drug and a reference (10 mg/kg rifampicin). The simulated data were analysed using t-test, ANOVA, mono- and bi-exponential models and a pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model approach (MTP model) to establish their respective power to find a drug effect at the 5% significance level. Results : For the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model approach, t-test, ANOVA, mono-exponential model and bi-exponential model, the sample sizes needed to achieve 90% power were: 10, 30, 75, 20 and 30 (drug A); 30, 75, 245, 75 and 105 (drug B); 70, >1250, 315, >1250 and >1250 (drug C); and 30, 110, 710, 170 and 185 (drug D), respectively. Conclusions : A model-based design and analysis using a pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic approach can reduce the number of patients required to determine a drug effect at least 2-fold compared with current methodologies. This could significantly accelerate early-phase TB drug development.
Svensson , R J , Gillespie , S H & Simonsson , U S H 2017 , ' Improved power for TB phase IIa trials using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach compared with commonly used analysis methods ' Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy , vol 72 , no. 8 , pp. 2311-2319 . DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkx129
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
The research leading to these results has received funding from the Swedish Research Council (grant number 521-2011-3442) in addition to the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (www.imi.europe.eu) under grant agreement no. 115337, resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) companies’ in kind contribution.
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