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dc.contributor.authorSong, Ruiting
dc.contributor.authorOver, Harriet
dc.contributor.authorCarpenter, Malinda
dc.identifier.citationSong , R , Over , H & Carpenter , M 2016 , ' Young children discriminate genuine from fake smiles and expect people displaying genuine smiles to be more prosocial ' , Evolution and Human Behavior , vol. 37 , no. 6 , pp. 490-501 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 242608016
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: f021eba8-6927-4d27-9fdc-024daad5f130
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:2224EB04EA4CD4AA6A6957E77C4BA435
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84973560772
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000386194600008
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3983-2034/work/64697971
dc.descriptionThis research was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (Grant number ES/K006702/1).en
dc.description.abstractWe investigated when young children become sensitive to one evolutionary important signal of honest affiliative and cooperative intent: a genuine (Duchenne) smile. Altogether, we tested 168 children between 2 and 5 years of age in a series of studies aimed at mapping the development of children's ability to discriminate genuine from fake smiles, their preference for genuine smiles, and their understanding of how genuine smiles are linked with prosocial behavior. Studies 1–4 showed that children's ability to discriminate, and answer questions about, the different types of smiles gradually improves between the ages of 2 and 4 years: from implicitly discriminating the smiles in their gaze behavior (at age 3), to being able to identify genuine smiles explicitly in a verbal task (at age 4). Study 5 showed that 4- to 5-year-old children expect people displaying genuine smiles to be more prosocial than those displaying fake smiles. These results demonstrate that the origins of this evolutionarily important form of partner choice appear early in development.
dc.relation.ispartofEvolution and Human Behavioren
dc.rights© 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectGenuine (Duchenne) smileen
dc.subjectFacial expressionen
dc.subjectSocial-cognitive developmenten
dc.subjectProsocial behavioren
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleYoung children discriminate genuine from fake smiles and expect people displaying genuine smiles to be more prosocialen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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