Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorWillmer, Patricia Gillian
dc.contributor.authorCunnold, Helen Elizabeth
dc.contributor.authorBallantyne, Gavin Andrew
dc.identifier.citationWillmer , P G , Cunnold , H E & Ballantyne , G A 2017 , ' Insights from measuring pollen deposition : quantifying the pre-eminence of bees as flower visitors and effective pollinators ' , Arthropod-Plant Interactions , vol. 11 , no. 3 , pp. 411-425 .
dc.descriptionThis research was funded by the Natural Environmental Research Council (grant no. NE/K004522/1), and by a St Andrews University Research studentship (HC).en
dc.description.abstractUsing our accumulated datasets from Kenyan savanna, Mediterranean garigue, UK gardens and heathland, involving 76 plants from 30 families, we present detailed data to quantify the superiority of bees as pollinators of most flowering plants when compared with other flower visitors. Bees provided the majority of visits to study species at all sites, and 33 of the 76 plants received more than 90% of their visits from bees. Furthermore, pollen deposition onto stigmas from single-visit events (SVD, a measure of pollination effectiveness) was significantly higher for bees than non-bees at all the four sites where a major proportion of the flora was sampled. Solitary bees, and also bumblebees in temperate habitats, were the best potential pollinators for most plants in this respect, and significantly out-performed honeybees. Only a few plants were well served by bombyliid flies, and fewer again by larger hoverflies, butterflies, or solitary wasps. Bees also achieved better matches of their visit timing to peak pollen availability (measured indirectly as peak SVD), and made much shorter visits to flowers than did non-bees, permitting a substantially greater visit frequency. Additionally, they deposited significantly lower levels of potentially deleterious heterospecific pollen on stigmas in heathland and Mediterranean garigue, though not in the UK garden with densely clustered high-diversity flowering, or in the Kenyan savanna site with particularly dispersed flowering patches and some specialist non-bee flowers. Our data provide a novel and quantified characterisation of the specific advantages of bees as flower visitors, and underline the need to conserve diverse bee communities.
dc.relation.ispartofArthropod-Plant Interactionsen
dc.subjectPollen depositionen
dc.subjectFlower visit durationen
dc.subjectVisit timingen
dc.subjectHeterospecific pollenen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleInsights from measuring pollen deposition : quantifying the pre-eminence of bees as flower visitors and effective pollinatorsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record