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dc.contributor.authorDamgaard, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorMcCauley, Darren
dc.contributor.authorLong, Jed
dc.identifier.citationDamgaard , C , McCauley , D & Long , J 2017 , ' Assessing the energy justice implications of bioenergy development in Nepal ' , Energy, Sustainability and Society , vol. 7 , no. 8 , pp. 1-16 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 249267468
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 51ba3bb8-78a0-456b-880f-12b18d06c963
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85016147533
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000411228800001
dc.description.abstractBackground :  The emerging concept of energy justice has focused on the justice implications of conventional energy systems (oil, gas, coal, etc.). Instead, we focus on the meaning of energy justice in the context of unconventional energy systems, by investigating small-scale bioenergy development in Nepal. We approach energy justice as a conceptual framework that focuses on social justice implications of energy systems, with an emphasis on burden/benefit distributions and procedural or post-distributive justice, and consider its applicability beyond conventional energy systems. Methods:   Research was carried out in two parallel phases: (1) a quantitative phase, based on spatial analysis of secondary data, explores bioenergy distribution in Nepal, in relation to social-demographic characteristics, to investigate processes of distributive justice, and (2) a qualitative phase, based on thematic analysis of primary interview data, looks at post-distributive aspects of the energy reality in Nepal, to critically discuss the meaning of energy justice in this context. Results :  1) Biogas development is unevenly distributed, following patterns of social connectedness, which suggests significant spatial variation in capabilities or capability deprivations regarding individual agency in relation to (bio)energy. 2) There is a surprising inconsistency in the relationship between socially marginalised populations and attainment of biogas across the country, which needs further research. 3) Individual agency, supported or facilitated by enabling actors—particularly local biogas companies—is a key characteristic of local biogas development. 4) Decentralised, small-scale energy development gives rise to power dynamics differing fundamentally from those of conventional centralised energy systems, through radically different processes of procedural justice. Conclusions: Processes of energy justice are shown to exhibit strong spatial variability and are associated with social connectedness. Analysis focusing on processes of agency and empowerment leads to the conclusion that energy justice, to encourage unconventional energy development, should emphasise the necessary interconnection of individual rights, empowerment and responsibility.
dc.relation.ispartofEnergy, Sustainability and Societyen
dc.rights© The Authors. 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.subjectEnergy justiceen
dc.subjectUnconventional energyen
dc.subjectDistributive justiceen
dc.subjectPost-distributive justiceen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectH Social Sciences (General)en
dc.subjectSDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energyen
dc.titleAssessing the energy justice implications of bioenergy development in Nepalen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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