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dc.contributor.authorKano, Fumihiro
dc.contributor.authorKrupenye, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorHirata, Satoshi
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.identifier.citationKano , F , Krupenye , C , Hirata , S & Call , J 2017 , ' Eye tracking uncovered great apes' ability to anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs ' , Communicative and Integrative Biology , vol. 10 , no. 2 , e1299836 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 249279037
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d0c052f6-b40b-46c8-9cf6-21ef77935b84
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:A0EA25E16115FD6C73819C4138AAF3E6
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85015451818
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8597-8336/work/37478029
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-2029-1872/work/42954205
dc.descriptionFinancial support came from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (K-CONNEX to FK), Japan Society for Promotion of Science (KAKENHI 26885040, 16K21108 to FK), National Science Foundation (DGE-1106401 to CK), JSPS (KAKENHI 26245069, 24000001 to SH), and European Research Council (Synergy grant 609819 SOMICS to JC)en
dc.description.abstractUsing a novel eye-tracking test, we recently showed that great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. This finding suggests that, like humans, great apes understand others' false beliefs, at least in an implicit way. One key question raised by our study is why apes have passed our tests but not previous ones. In this article, we consider this question by detailing the development of our task. We considered three major differences in our task compared to the previous ones. First, we monitored apes' eye movements, and specifically their anticipatory looks, in order to measure their predictions about how agents will behave. Second, we adapted our design from an anticipatory-looking false belief test originally developed for human infants. Third, we developed novel test scenarios that were specifically designed to capture the attention of our ape participants. We then discuss how each difference may help explain differences in performance on our task and previous ones, and finally propose some directions for future studies.
dc.relation.ispartofCommunicative and Integrative Biologyen
dc.rights© 2017 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis. © Fumihiro Kano, Christopher Krupenye, Satoshi Hirata, and Josep Call. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.en
dc.subjectAnticipatory looken
dc.subjectFalse beliefen
dc.subjectGreat apeen
dc.subjectTheory of Minden
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleEye tracking uncovered great apes' ability to anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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