Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorDonovan, Carl R.
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Catriona M.
dc.contributor.authorMilazzo, Lorenzo
dc.contributor.authorHarwood, John
dc.contributor.authorMarshall, Laura
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Rob
dc.identifier.citationDonovan , C R , Harris , C M , Milazzo , L , Harwood , J , Marshall , L & Williams , R 2017 , ' A simulation approach to assessing environmental risk of sound exposure to marine mammals ' , Ecology and Evolution , vol. 7 , no. 7 , pp. 2101-2111 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 245264159
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: e1481920-22c3-4e73-ba30-759ec10252dc
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85014161456
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000399738700009
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9198-2414/work/60887689
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1465-5193/work/68647705
dc.description.abstractIntense underwater sounds caused by military sonar, seismic surveys, and pile driving can harm acoustically sensitive marine mammals. Many jurisdictions require such activities to undergo marine mammal impact assessments to guide mitigation. However, the ability to assess impacts in a rigorous, quantitative way is hindered by large knowledge gaps concerning hearing ability, sensitivity, and behavioral responses to noise exposure. We describe a simulation-based framework, called SAFESIMM (Statistical Algorithms For Estimating the Sonar Influence on Marine Megafauna), that can be used to calculate the numbers of agents (animals) likely to be affected by intense underwater sounds. We illustrate the simulation framework using two species that are likely to be affected by marine renewable energy developments in UK waters: gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). We investigate three sources of uncertainty: How sound energy is perceived by agents with differing hearing abilities; how agents move in response to noise (i.e., the strength and directionality of their evasive movements); and the way in which these responses may interact with longer term constraints on agent movement. The estimate of received sound exposure level (SEL) is influenced most strongly by the weighting function used to account for the specie's presumed hearing ability. Strongly directional movement away from the sound source can cause modest reductions (~5 dB) in SEL over the short term (periods of less than 10 days). Beyond 10 days, the way in which agents respond to noise exposure has little or no effect on SEL, unless their movements are constrained by natural boundaries. Most experimental studies of noise impacts have been short-term. However, data are needed on long-term effects because uncertainty about predicted SELs accumulates over time. Synthesis and applications. Simulation frameworks offer a powerful way to explore, understand, and estimate effects of cumulative sound exposure on marine mammals and to quantify associated levels of uncertainty. However, they can often require subjective decisions that have important consequences for management recommendations, and the basis for these decisions must be clearly described.
dc.relation.ispartofEcology and Evolutionen
dc.rights© 2017 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectAgent-based modelsen
dc.subjectGrey sealen
dc.subjectHarbour porpoiseen
dc.subjectRisk assessmenten
dc.subjectUnderwater sounden
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.subjectSDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleA simulation approach to assessing environmental risk of sound exposure to marine mammalsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record