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dc.contributor.authorHigginson, Andrew D.
dc.contributor.authorSpeed, Michael P.
dc.contributor.authorRuxton, Graeme D.
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-22T12:30:10Z
dc.date.available2017-02-22T12:30:10Z
dc.date.issued2015-12
dc.identifier.citationHigginson , A D , Speed , M P & Ruxton , G D 2015 , ' Florivory as an opportunity benefit of aposematism ' American Naturalist , vol. 186 , no. 6 , pp. 728-741 . DOI: 10.1086/683463en
dc.identifier.issn0003-0147
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 244287845
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c531185f-4be2-4873-98ca-ab044cfc9a86
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000365307700007
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84947609304
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 26655980
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/10333
dc.descriptionA.D.H. was supported by the European Research Council (Advanced Grant 250209 to A. Houston) and fellowships from the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin and the Natural Environment Research Council (NE/L011921/1).en
dc.description.abstractInconspicuous prey pay a cost of reduced feeding opportunities. Flowers are highly nutritious but are positioned where prey would be apparent to predators and often contain toxins to reduce consumption. However, many herbivores are specialized to subvert these defenses by retaining toxins for their own use. Here, we present a model of the growth and life history of a small herbivore that can feed on leaves or flowers during its development and can change its primary defense against visual predators between crypsis and warning coloration. When herbivores can retain plant toxins, their fitness is greatly increased when they are aposematic and can consume flowers. Thus, toxin sequestration leading to aposematism may enable a significant opportunity benefit for florivory. Florivory by cryptic herbivores is predicted when toxins are very potent but are at high concentration only in flowers and not in leaves. Herbivores should usually switch to eating flowers only when large and in most conditions should switch simultaneously from crypsis to aposematism. Our results suggest that florivory should be widespread in later instars of small aposematic herbivores and should be associated with ontogenic color change. Florivory is likely to play an underappreciated role in herbivorous insect life histories and host plant reproductive success.en
dc.format.extent14en
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofAmerican Naturalisten
dc.rights© 2015 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/683463en
dc.subjectFlower-eatingen
dc.subjectFolivoryen
dc.subjectCamouflageen
dc.subjectCrypsisen
dc.subjectSequestrationen
dc.subjectToxinsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subject.lccQH301en
dc.titleFlorivory as an opportunity benefit of aposematismen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1086/683463
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden


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