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dc.contributor.authorHahn, Allison
dc.contributor.authorHoeschele, M
dc.contributor.authorGuillette, Lauren Mary
dc.contributor.authorHoang, J
dc.contributor.authorMcMillan, N
dc.contributor.authorCongdon, J
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, K
dc.contributor.authorMennil, D
dc.contributor.authorOtter, K
dc.contributor.authorGrava, T
dc.contributor.authorRatcliffe, L
dc.contributor.authorSturdy, C
dc.identifier.citationHahn , A , Hoeschele , M , Guillette , L M , Hoang , J , McMillan , N , Congdon , J , Campbell , K , Mennil , D , Otter , K , Grava , T , Ratcliffe , L & Sturdy , C 2016 , ' Black-capped chickadees categorize songs based on features that vary geographically ' , Animal Behaviour , vol. 112 , pp. 93-104 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 244608162
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: b88c76a6-e93f-4032-93ff-5ce5f261ec50
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84951993454
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000369617800011
dc.description.abstractThe songs of many songbird species vary geographically, yet, the songs of black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, show remarkable consistency across most of the species' North American range. Previous research has described subtle variations in the song of this species by comparing songs produced by males at distant parts of the species' range (British Columbia and Ontario). In the current study, we used an operant discrimination task to examine whether birds classify the songs produced by males in these two previously studied locations as belonging to distinct open-ended categories. In both experiments, when birds were presented with new songs, they continued to respond to songs from the same geographical location as the songs that were reinforced during initial discrimination training, suggesting that birds were using open-ended categorization. We also presented birds with songs in which we manipulated acoustic features in order to examine the acoustic mechanisms used during discrimination; results provide support that birds use the duration of the song when discriminating, but the results also suggest that birds used additional acoustic features. Taken together, these experiments show that black-capped chickadees classify songs into open-ended, geography-based categories, and provide compelling evidence that perceptible acoustic differences exist in a vocalization that is seemingly consistent across the species' range.
dc.relation.ispartofAnimal Behaviouren
dc.rights© 2016, The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at /
dc.subjectAcoustic discriminationen
dc.subjectBlack-capped chickadeeen
dc.subjectGeographical variationen
dc.subjectOperant conditioningen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleBlack-capped chickadees categorize songs based on features that vary geographicallyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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