A genome-wide analysis in cluster headache points to neprilysin and PACAP receptor gene variants
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Background : Cluster Headache (CH) is a severe primary headache, with a poorly understood pathophysiology. Complex genetic factors are likely to play a role in CH etiology; however, no confirmed gene associations have been identified. The aim of this study is to identify genetic variants influencing risk to CH and to explore the potential pathogenic mechanisms. Methods : We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a clinically well-defined cohort of 99 Italian patients with CH and in a control sample of 360 age-matched sigarette smoking healthy individuals, using the Infinium PsychArray (Illumina), which combines common highly-informative genome-wide tag SNPs and exonic SNPs. Genotype data were used to carry out a genome-wide single marker case-control association analysis using common SNPs, and a gene-based association analysis focussing on rare protein altering variants in 745 candidate genes with a putative role in CH. Results : Although no single variant showed statistically significant association at the genome-wide threshold, we identified an interesting suggestive association (P = 9.1 × 10−6) with a common variant of the PACAP receptor gene (ADCYAP1R1). Furthermore, gene-based analysis provided significant evidence of association (P = 2.5 × 10−5) for a rare potentially damaging missense variant in the MME gene, encoding for the membrane metallo-endopeptidase neprilysin. Conclusions : Our study represents the first genome-wide association study of common SNPs and rare exonic variants influencing risk for CH. The most interesting results implicate ADCYAP1R1 and MME gene variants in CH susceptibility and point to a role for genes involved in pain processing. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of CH that need further investigation and replication in larger CH samples.
Bacchelli , E , Cainazzo , M M , Cameli , C , Guerzoni , S , Martinelli , A , Zoli , M , Maestrini , E & Pini , L A 2016 , ' A genome-wide analysis in cluster headache points to neprilysin and PACAP receptor gene variants ' Journal of Headache and Pain , vol 17 , no. 1 , 114 . DOI: 10.1186/s10194-016-0705-y
Journal of Headache and Pain
© The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Supported by the Italian Ministry of Health (RF2009-1549619), University of Bologna (RFO).
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